Performance Investigations of a Quad-band Microstrip Antenna for Body Wearable Wireless Devices

Authors

  • Varshini Karthik Dept. of Biomedical Engineering SRM University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu - 603203, India
  • T. Rama Rao Dept. of Telecommunication Engineering SRM University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu - 603203, India

Keywords:

Microstrip antenna, quad-band, specific absorption rate, thermal effects, ultra wideband, WBAN, wearable wireless devices

Abstract

This research work proposes a microstripbased quad-band monopole antenna for body Wearable Wireless Devices (WWD) for Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) applications. Ultra high frequency (UHF) and Ultra wide band (UWB) technology have been known for their efficiency to meet power, size and distance considerations for WBANs. The designed antenna resonates at four frequencies, 1.8, 2.4, 5.0 and 8.9 GHz covering licensed and license-free wireless technologies. The antenna design considers the electromagnetic (EM) effects due to the interaction of body tissues with the radio frequency (RF) waves, which are very different when compared to their interaction with free space. The performance of the antenna is investigated in terms of radiation efficiency, total gain, specific absorption rate (SAR), and thermal effects (short and long term). A simplified, human body tissue layer model is used for simulations utilizing EM computations. Simulated and experimental results are paralleled and are found to be in good agreement.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Varshini Karthik, Dept. of Biomedical Engineering SRM University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu - 603203, India

Varshini Karthik is presently working as an Assistant Professor, Department of Biomedical Engineering, SRM University, India. She received a Bachelor of Engineering degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering from the Bharathidasan University in 2002 and received her Master of Engineering degree in Medical Electronics from Anna University in 2009. Her main research interests are design and optimization of Body wearable wireless devices and their Bio electromagnetic effects.

T. Rama Rao, Dept. of Telecommunication Engineering SRM University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu - 603203, India

T. Rama Rao is a Professor of Telecommunication Engineering at SRM University, India, and has a long-standing research experience on radiowave propagation studies for wireless communications. In the past, he worked at Aalborg University, Denmark as a Research Professor in an EU funded project on cellular networks capacity enhancement, at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain, and at the University of Sydney, Australia, as a Visiting Professor. He is a member of IEEE, WWRF, IET, ACM, and IETE Fellow.

References

S. Movassaghi, M. Abolhasan, J. Lipman, D. Smith, and A. Jamalipour, “Wireless body area networks: A survey,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 16.3, pp. 1658-1686, 2014.

B. Gupta, S. Shankaralingam, and S. Dhar, “Development of wearable and implantable antennas in the last decade: A review,” MMS’10, Guzelyurt, 2010.

E. S. Florence, M. Kanagasabai, and G. N. M Alsath, “An investigation of a wearable antenna using human body modelling,” Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal, vol. 29, no. 10, 2014.

C. H. Lin and K. Ito, “A compact dual-mode wearable antenna for body-centric wireless communications,” Electronics, vol. 3.3, pp. 398- 408, 2014.

D. D. Cara, J. Trajkovikj, R. Torres-Sánchez, J. F. Zürcher, and A. K. Skrivervik, “A low profile UWB antenna for wearable applications: The tripod kettle antenna (TKA),” In Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), IEEE 2013 7th European Conference on, pp. 3257-3260, 2013.

A. Sabban, “Comprehensive study of printed antennas on human body for medical applications,” International Journal of Advance in Medical Science, 2013.

J. Anguera, A. Andújar, C. Picher, L. González, C. Puente, and S. Kahng, “Behavior of several antenna topologies near the human head at the 2.4–2.5 GHz band,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 1911-1916, 2012.

T. Tuovinen, K. Y. Yazdandoost, and J. Iinatti, “Monopole ultra-wideband antenna for on-body communication in wireless body area network,” In Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), Loughborough, pp. 1-4, 2011.

A. A. Kishk and K. F. Lee, “Ultrawide-band coplanar waveguide-fed rectangular slot antenna,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 1.3, pp. 227-229, 2004.

Z. N. Chen, T. See, and X. Qing, “Small printed ultrawideband antenna with reduced ground plane effect,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 55.2, pp. 383-388, 2007.

M. A. Osman, M. K. A. Rahim, K. Kamardin, F. Zubir, and N. A. Samsuri, “Design and analysis UWB wearable textile antenna,” In Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), IEEE Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on, pp. 530-533, 2011.

S. A. Ali, U. Rafique, U. Ahmad, and M. A. Khan, “Multiband microstrip patch antenna for microwave applications,” IOSR Journal of Electronics & Communication Eng., vol. 3.5, pp. 43-48, 2012.

M. R. Ahsan, M. T. Islam, M. Habib Ullah, H. Arshad, and M. F. Mansor, “Low-cost dielectric substrate for designing low profile multiband monopole microstrip antenna,” The Scientific World Journal, 2014.

M. E. B. Jalil, M. K. Abd Rahim, N. A. Samsurin, N. A. Murad, H. A. Majid, K. Kamardin, M. Azfar Abdullah, “Fractal Koch multiband textile antenna performance with bending, wet conditions and on the human body,” Progress in EM Research, vol. 140, pp. 633-652, 2013.

F. B. Saadi and M. R. Kamarudin, “EM wave effects upon the human body using UWB antennas,” Blood, vol. 57.3, pp. 149209, 2014.

K. M. S. Thotahewa, J. M. Redoute, and M. R. Yuce, “SAR, SA and temperature variations in the human head caused by IR-UWB implants operating at 4 GHz,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 61.5, pp. 2161-2169, 2013.

P. A. Neukomm, “Body-mounted antennas,” Doctoral dissertation, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH, Zurich, 1979.

S. Sankaralingam and B. Gupta, “Development of textile antennas for body wearable applications and investigations on their performance under bent conditions,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, vol. 22, pp. 53-71, 2010.

S. Velan, E. F. Sundarsingh, M. Kanagasabai, A. K. Sarma, C. Raviteja, R. Sivasamy, and J. K. Pakkathillam, “Dual-band EBG integrated monopole antenna deploying fractal geometry for wearable applications,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 14, pp. 249-252, 2015.

T. Wu, T. S. Rappaport, and C. M. Collins, “The human body and millimeter-wave wireless communication systems: Interactions and implications,” ICC’2015 IEEE International Conference on Communications, pp. 2423-2429, 2015.

Z. Maxim, N. Chahat, R. Sauleau, C. Le Quement, and Y. Le Drean, “Millimeter-wave interactions with the human body: State of knowledge and recent advances,” Intern. Journal of Microwave & Wireless Technologies, vol.3.2, pp. 237-247, 2011.

T. Wu, S. T. S. Rappaport, and C. M. Collin, “Safe for generations to come: Considerations of safety for millimeter waves in wireless communications,” IEEE Microwave Magazine, vol. 16. 2, pp. 65-84, 2015.

H. Yamamoto and T. Kobayashi, “Ultra-wideband propagation loss around a human body in various surrounding environments,” Ultra-Wideband, Short Pulse Electromagnetics, vol. 9, pp. 11-17, 2010.

A. Batra, J. Balakrishnan, G. R. Aiello, J. R. Foerster, and A. Dabak, “Design of a multiband OFDM system for realistic UWB channel environments,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 52.9, pp. 2123-2138, 2004.

http://www.ansys.com/

http://www.speag.com/

N. Siauve, R. Scorretti, N. Burais, L. Nicolas, and A. Nicolas, “Electromagnetic fields and human body: a new challenge for the electromagnetic field computation,” The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 22.3, pp. 457-469, 2003.

C. Gabrie, S. Gabriely, E. Corthout, “The dielectric properties of biological tissues: I. Literature survey,” Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 41, pp. 2231-2249, 1996.

S. Hernandez and A. David, High Frequency Electromagnetic Dosimetry. Artech House, 2009.

T. Tuovinen, M. Berg, K. Y. Yazdandoost, and J. Iinatti, “Ultra wideband loop antenna on contact with human body tissues,” IET Microwave and Antennas Propagation, vol. 7.7, pp. 588-596, 2013.

M. Klemm and G. Troester, “EM energy absorption in the human body tissues due to UWB antennas,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research, vol. 62, pp. 261-280, 2006.

Italian National Research Council, Institute for Applied Physics, homepage on Dielectric properties of body tissues. [Online]. Available: http://niremf.ifac.cnr.it

R. Garg, P. Bhartia, I. Bahl, and A. Ittipiboon, Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook. Artech House, 2001.

R. Y. Ha, K. Nojima, P. William, and A. S. Brown, “Analysis of facial skin thickness: Defining the relative thickness index,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 115.6, pp. 1769-1773, 2005.

W. L. Weiss and C. F. Clark “Ultrasonic protocols for separately measuring subcutaneous fat and skeletal muscle thickness in the calf area,” Physical Therapy Journal, vol. 65.4, pp. 477-481, 1985.

S. P. Jerrold, J. D M. Prowse, and E. Lohman, “The influence of aging and diabetes on skin and subcutaneous fat thickness in different regions of the body,” The Journal of Applied Research, vol. 8.1, pp. 55, 2008.

F. J. Menick, “A 10-year experience in nasal reconstruction with the three-stage forehead flap,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 109.6, pp. 1839-1855, 2002.

R. Moller, R. Horejsi, E. Tafeit, M. Fraidl, G. Dietmaier, U. Anegg, H. Klemen, and S. WallnerLiebmann, “Effects of hyperbaric environment on SAT-Top,” Coll. Antropol, vol. 34.4, pp. 1309- 1313, 2010.

O. Akkus, A. Oguz, M. Uzunlulu, and M. Kizilgul, “Evaluation of skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness for optimal insulin injection,” Journal on Diabetes Metab, 2012.

A. Akesson, H. R. A. Schema, and M. Wildt, “Longitudinal development of skin involvement and reliability of high frequency ultrasound in systemic sclerosis,” Ann Rheum Diseases, vol. 63.7, pp. 791-796, 2004.

F. S. González, “Radiation effects of wearable antenna in human body tissues,” University of Colorado Springs, 2014.

T. Samaras, A. Christ, A. Klingenbock, and N. Kuster, “Worst case temperature rise in a onedimensional tissue model exposed to radio frequency radiation,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 54.3, pp. 492-496, 2007.

H. N. Kritikos and H. P. Schwan, “Potential temperature rise induced by electromagnetic field in brain tissues,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 1, pp. 29-34, 1979.

ICNIRP Guidelines for limiting to time varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300GHz), Health Physics, vol. 74.4, pp. 494‐ 522, 1998.

IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz, IEEE Standard C 95.1, 2005.

Downloads

Published

2021-10-21

How to Cite

Karthik, V. ., & Rao, T. R. . (2021). Performance Investigations of a Quad-band Microstrip Antenna for Body Wearable Wireless Devices. The Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal (ACES), 36(08), 980–988. Retrieved from https://journals.riverpublishers.com/index.php/ACES/article/view/11757

Issue

Section

Articles