Beyond LOS Detection of Hypersonic Vehicles


  • Randall L. Musselman US Air Force Academy, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado Springs, CO, USA
  • Stephan H. Chastain US Air Force Academy, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado Springs, CO, USA


HF, hypersonic, over-the-horizon radar, plasma, RCS


RCS modeling of a typical hypersonic vehicle and its plasma sheath was investigated. The plasma parameters were analyzed to determine which were most dominant for accurate RCS prediction. HF was determined to provide BLOS detection and good conductivity of the plasma, for optimum RCS.


Download data is not yet available.


J. D. Anderson, Jr., Hypersonic and High-Temperature Gas Dynamics, 3rd ed., p. 21, AIAA, Inc., Reston, VA, 2019.

R. Savino, D. Paterna, M. De Stefano Fum, and M. D’Elia, “Plasma-RF interactions around atmospheric re-entry vehicles: Modelling and Arc-Jet simulations,” Open Aerospace Engineering Journal, pp. 76-85, 2010.

B. Yao, X. Li, L. Shi, Y. Liu, and B. Bai, “A layered fluctuation model of electron density in plasma sheath and instability effect on Electromagnetic wave at Ka band,” Aerospace Science and Technology, 78, pp. 480-487, 2018.

M. Keidar, M. Kim, and I. Boyd, “Electromagnetic reduction of plasma density during atmospheric reentry and hypersonic flights,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 445-453, May-June 2008.

P. Andre, M. Ali, and S. Lalléchère, “Air plasma key parameters for electromagnetic wave propagation at and out of thermal equilibrium,” ACES Journal, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1453-1460, Dec. 2018.

U. Inan and M. Gołkowski, Principles of Plasma Physics for Engineers and Scientists, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, p. 162, 2011.

PHaRLAP, M. Cervera, Defence Science and Technology Group, Australia (




How to Cite

Randall L. Musselman, & Stephan H. Chastain. (2020). Beyond LOS Detection of Hypersonic Vehicles. The Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal (ACES), 35(11), 1364–1365. Retrieved from