Passive Fractal Chipless RFID Tags Based on Cellular Automata for Security Applications


  • Mohammad N. Zaqumi King Abdulaziz University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
  • Jawad Yousaf Department of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering, Abu Dhabi University, United Arab Emirates
  • Mohamed Zarouan King Abdulaziz University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
  • Mohammed A. Hussaini Universiti Kuala Lumpur – British Malaysian Institute, Gombak 53100, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Hatem Rmili King Abdulaziz University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia


Cellular automata, chipless RFID, fractal tags, game of life


In this paper, we propose a novel design of low-profile fractal chipless tags with unique specific electromagnetic responses. The tags are designed using cellular automata (Game of Life) technique to ensure the randomness of the generated fractal tags. The tags are simulated in CST Microwave Studio for the frequency range of 2 to 10 GHz. The tags are realized on FR4 substrate and their radar cross-section (RCS) characteristics are analyzed for the nine different tags for the three different polarizations (horizontal, vertical, and oblique). Each tag shows a unique signature resonance response. The obtained results of coding capacity (16-20 bits), coding spatial capacity (1-1.25 bits/cm2), coding spectral capacity (2.15-2.9 bits/GHz), and coding density (0.15-0.18 bits/GHz x cm2) of realized tags are very good. The presented tags could be used for the development of secure RFID systems.


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How to Cite

Mohammad N. Zaqumi, Jawad Yousaf, Mohamed Zarouan, Mohammed A. Hussaini, & Hatem Rmili. (2021). Passive Fractal Chipless RFID Tags Based on Cellular Automata for Security Applications. The Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal (ACES), 36(05), 559–567. Retrieved from