GPR Pulse Propagation Topography
Keywords:Antennas, FDTD, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), patch antenna, propagation, UWB
In this article, I propose a new method for calculating and visualizing the pulse radiation within the depth range commonly used by Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). The text describes the method and illustrates the propagation with several examples. One conventional method is also applied for a quick comparison. The method can be used to optimize GPR antennas and transmit pulse shapes.
D. Daniels, Ground Penetrating Radar. London: IET, 2004.
D. Comite, A. Galli, I. Catapano, and F. Soldovieri, “The role of the antenna radiation pattern in the performance of a microwave tomographic approach for GPR imaging,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 4337-4347, Oct. 2017.
H. Jol, Ground Penetrating Radar: Theory and applications. Oxford: Elsevier Science, 2009.
C. Warren and A. Giannopoulos, “Characterisation of a ground penetrating radar antenna in lossless homogeneous and lossy heterogeneous environments,” Signal Processing, vol. 132, no. Mar., pp. 221-226, Mar. 2017.
C. Warren and A. Giannopoulos, “Experimental and modeled performance of a ground penetrating radar antenna in lossy dielectrics,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 29-36, Jan. 2016.
H. Schantz, The Art and Science of Ultrawideband Antennas. 2nd edition, Boston: Artech House, 2015.
N. Diamanti and A. P. Annan, “Characterizing the energy distribution around GPR antennas,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, vol. 99, pp. 83-90, Dec. 2013.
M. Hall, L. Barclay, and M. Hewitt, Propagation of Radiowawes. Exeter: Short Run Press, 1996.
V.-E. Voipio, “The Gopher antenna - A new efficient design for ground penetrating radar,” in International Workshop on Advanced Ground Penetrating Radar, Hague, Netherlands, pp. 1-5, Sep. 2019.
L. Pajewski, A. Giannopoulos, C. Warren, S. Antonijevic, V. Doric, D. Poljac, and D. Pirrone, “Development of electromagnetic simulators for ground penetrating radar,” in 2017 International Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society (ACES) Symposium, Firenze, Italy, pp. 1-2, Mar. 2017.
A. Elsherbeni and D. Veysel, The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method for Electromagnetics with MATLAB Simulations. Raleigh NC: SciTech Publishing Inc., 2008.
K. Holliger and T. Bergmann, “Accurate and efficient FDTD modeling of ground-penetrating radar radiation,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 25, no. 20, pp. 3883-3886, Oct. 15, 1998.
C. Warren and A. Giannopoulos, “Creating FDTD models of commercial GPR antennas using Taguchi's optimisation method,” Geophysics, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 37-47, Mar.-Apr. 2011.
C. A. Balanis, Modern Antenna Handbook. Hoboken NJ: Wiley, 2008.