Performance of Multiple-Feed Metasurface Antennas with Different Numbers of Patch Cells and Different Substrate Thicknesses
Keywords:Antenna array, metamaterials, metasurface, terahertz antennas, wide gain bandwidth
The design and performance of low-profile, multiple-feed metasurface antennas with different numbers of patch cells and different substrate thicknesses at a terahertz frequency are presented in this paper. The utilized antenna designs consist of a periodic array (N × M) metallic square-patch metasurface and a planar feeding structure, which are both patterned on an electrically thin, high-permittivity GaAs substrate. The antenna gain increased in a linear fashion with an increasing number of patch cells, which were directly fed by the slit feedline. A 3-dB gain increment was observed irrespective of the substrate thickness when the number of patch cells was doubled. However, the 3-dB gain bandwidth as well as the radiation efficiency changed significantly with varying substrate thicknesses. The described antenna structure offers useful characteristics by means of a combination of different substrate thicknesses and patch numbers. In addition, the proposed antenna design features a number of benefits, including a low profile, mechanical robustness, easy integration into circuit boards, and excellent suitability for low-cost mass production.
N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 139- 150, 2014.
J. P. Turpin, J. A. Bossard, K. L. Morgan, D. H. Werner, and P. L. Werner, “Reconfigurable and tunable metamaterials: A review of the theory and applications,” Int. J. Antennas Propag., vol. 2014, 429837, pp. 1-18, 2014.
Y. Dong and T. Itoh, “Metamaterial-based antennas,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 7, pp. 2271-2285, 2012.
C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 10-35, 2012.
M. Koutsoupidou, I. S. Karanasiou, and N. Uzunoglu, “Rectangular patch antenna on splitring resonators substrate for THz brain imaging: Modeling and testing,” IEEE Int. Conf. on Bioinformatics and Bioengineering, Chania, Greece, pp. 1-4, Nov. 2013.
M. E. Badawe, T. S. Almoneef, and O. M. Ramahi, “A true metasurface antenna,” Sci. Rep., vol. 6, 19268, pp. 1-8, 2016.
H. Zhou, J. Dong, S. Yan, Y. Zhou, and X. Zhang, “Generation of terahertz vortices using metasurface with circular slits,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 6, no. 6, 5900107, pp. 1-7, 2014.
Q. Zhang, L. Si, Y. Huang, X. Lv, and W. Zhu, “Low-index-metamaterial for gain enhancement of planar terahertz antenna,” AIP Adv., vol. 4, no. 3, 037103, pp. 1-7, 2014.
Y. Huang, L. Yang, J. Li, Y. Wang, and G. Wen, “Polarization conversing of metasurface for the application of wide band low-profile circular polarization slot antenna,” Appl. Phy. Lett., vol. 109, 054101, pp. 1-5, 2016.
N. Nasimuddin, Z. N. Chen, and X. Qing, “Bandwidth enhancement of a single-feed circularly polarized antenna using a metasurface: Metamaterialbased wideband CP rectangular microstrip antenna,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 39-46, 2016.
X. Gao, X. Han, W. P. Cao, H. F. Ma, H. O. Li, and T. J. Cui, “Ultrawideband and high-efficiency linear polarization converter based on double vshaped metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 3522-3530, 2015.
A. Mahmood, G. O. Yetkin, and C. Sabah, “Wideband negative permittivity and double negative fishnet-mushroom-like metamaterial in x-band waveguide,” Int. J. Antennas Propag., vol. 2017, 2439518, pp. 1-7, 2017.
S. I. Rosaline and S. Raghavan, “Metamaterial inspired square ring monopole antenna for WLAN applications,” ACES Express J., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 32-35, 2016.
A. Shater and D. Zarifi, “Radar cross section reduction of microstrip antenna using dual-band metamaterial absorber,” ACES J., vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 135-140, 2017.
P. Rocca and A. F. Morabito, “Optimal synthesis of reconfigurable planar arrays with simplified architectures for monopulse radar applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 1048-1058, 2015.
P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 910-928, 2002.
N. Hussain and I. Park, “Terahertz planar widegain-bandwidth metasurface antenna,” Int. Workshop on Metamaterials-by-Design, Riva del Garda, Italy, pp. 1-2, Dec. 2016.
N. Hussain, T. K. Nguyen, H. Han, and I. Park, “Minimum lens size supporting the leaky-wave nature of slit dipole antenna at terahertz frequency,” Int. J. Antennas Propag., vol. 2016, 5826957, pp. 1-8, 2016.
N. Hussain, K. E. Kam, and I. Park, “Performance of a planar leaky-wave slit antenna for different values of substrate thickness,” J. Electromagn. Eng. Sci., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 202-207, Oct. 2017.
T. K. Nguyen, B. Q. Ta, and I. Park, “Design of a planar, high-gain, substrate-integrated Fabry-Perot cavity antenna at terahertz frequency,” Curr. Appl. Phys., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1047-1053, 2015.
N. Hussain, T. K. Nguyen, and I. Park, “Performance comparison of a planar substrate-integrated Fabry-Perot cavity antenna with different unit cells at terahertz frequency,” in IEEE European Conf. on Antennas and Propagation, Davos, Switzerland, pp. 1-4, Apr. 2016.
K. M. Luk, S. F. Zhou, Y. J. Li, F. Wu, K. B. Ng, C. H. Chan, and S. W. Pang, “A microfabricated low-profile wideband antenna array for terahertz communications,” Sci. Rep., vol. 7, 1268, pp. 1-11, 2017.
C. Gu, S. Gao, and B. Sanz-Izquierdo, “Low-cost wideband low-THz antennas for wireless communications and sensing,” in UK-Europe-China Workshop on Millimetre Waves and Terahertz Technologies, Liverpool, UK, pp. 1-4, Sep. 2017.
F. Costa, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “An overview of equivalent circuit modeling techniques of frequency selective surfaces and metasurfaces,” ACES J., vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 960-976, Dec. 2014.
A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electromagnetics: The Finite-Difference TimeDomain (FDTD) Method. Artech House, 3rd ed., 2005.
CST Microwave Studio, https://www.cst.com/
N. Hussain and I. Park, “Design of a wide-gainbandwidth metasurface antenna at terahertz frequency,” AIP Adv., vol. 7, no. 5, 055313, pp. 1-8, 2017.
B. A. Munk, Frequency Selective Surfaces: Theory and Design. Wiley, New York, 2000.