Fracture Prediction Based on Evaluation of Initial Porosity Induced By Direct Energy Deposition

Authors

  • Roya Darabi Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (INEGI), FEUP campus, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 400, 4200-465, Porto, Portugal https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0807-0156
  • Erfan Azinpour Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (INEGI), FEUP campus, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 400, 4200-465, Porto, Portugal; Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto (FEUP), Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465, Porto, Portugal
  • Jose Cesar de Sa Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (INEGI), FEUP campus, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 400, 4200-465, Porto, Portugal; Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto (FEUP), Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465, Porto, Portugal https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1257-1754
  • Margarida Machado Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto (FEUP), Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465, Porto, Portugal
  • Ana Rosanete Reis Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (INEGI), FEUP campus, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 400, 4200-465, Porto, Portugal; Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto (FEUP), Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465, Porto, Portugal
  • Josef Hodek COMTES FHT a.s., Průmyslova 995, 334 41, Dobrany, Czech Republic
  • Jan Dzugan COMTES FHT a.s., Průmyslova 995, 334 41, Dobrany, Czech Republic

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.13052/ejcm2642-2085.29233

Keywords:

Directed Energy Deposition (DED), Additive Manufacturing (AM), Porosity, Mechanical Behavior, Initiation and Propagation of Cracks

Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM) of metals proved to be beneficial in many industrial and non-industrial areas due to its low material waste and fast stacking speed to fabricate high performance products. The present contribution addresses several known challenges including mechanical behaviour and porosity analysis on directed energy deposition (DED) manufactured stainless steel 316L components. The experimental methodology consisting of metal deposition procedure, hardness testing and fractographic observations on manufactured mini-tensile test samples is described. A ductile fracture material model based on the Rousselier damage criterion is utilized within a FE framework for evaluation of material global response and determination of initial porosity value representing the structure’s nucleating void population. Alternatively, the initial pore sizes are characterized using the generalized mixture rule (GMR) analysis and the validity of the approach is examined against the experimental results.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Roya Darabi, Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (INEGI), FEUP campus, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 400, 4200-465, Porto, Portugal

Roya Darabi is a Ph.D. student at the faculty of mechanical engineering of University of Porto since September 2019. She received her master degree in manufacturing engineering from Arak University of technology in 2015 and her bachelor degree in mechanical engineering from Iran University of science and technology (IUST), Tehran, in 2012. After achieving her master degree, she has been member of the Iran’s National Elites Foundation since 2016. She attended Machine Sazi Arak (M.S.A), the Middle East leading oilfield services provider and affiliated by IDRO Iran, as high-pressure oil and gas equipment and refinery industries designer between 2012 and 2018. Then she joined the advanced manufacturing technology group (UTAF) at INEGI in September 2018.

Erfan Azinpour, Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (INEGI), FEUP campus, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 400, 4200-465, Porto, Portugal; Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto (FEUP), Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465, Porto, Portugal

Erfan Azinpour is a post graduate researcher at the Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto. After his Ph.D. graduation in March of 2020 which was partly conducted under the fellowship position at Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (INEGI) since July 2016, he continued his research at the faculty in the field of mechanical engineering to this date. The research areas are revolved around the development of numerical methods and strategies in fracture and damage mechanics, primarily in brittle and ductile material context, and assessment of reliability and performance of such methods in reproducing the structural failures in real life events and in the scale of industrial applications.

Jose Cesar de Sa , Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (INEGI), FEUP campus, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 400, 4200-465, Porto, Portugal; Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto (FEUP), Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465, Porto, Portugal

Jose Cesar de Sa, is a Full Professor at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto (FEUP) Portugal. He graduated in Civil Engineering at FEUP in 1976 and has a Ph.D. in Civil Engineering at the University of Swansea, U.K., in 1986. He is currently the President of APMTAC, the Portuguese Association of Theoretical, Applied and Computational Mechanics and Member of the Managing Board of ECCOMAS-European Community on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences.

Margarida Machado, Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto (FEUP), Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465, Porto, Portugal

Margarida Machado hold a MSc and PhD degree in Biomedical Engineering from University of Minho (Guimarães, Portugal). During her doctoral studies, Margarida was a visiting scholar of Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal) and University of Florida (Gainesville, USA). Her PhD work in the scope of Computational Biomechanics had been distinguished internationally twice, firstly by EUROMECH (2009) and later by ASME (2011). Since 2013, Margarida Machado is working at INEGI (Institute of Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Management) in Porto (Portugal) as a senior research, where she starts developing a career in research management. From 2016 and 2020, she devoted some work in the field of Additive Manufacturing by means of the co-supervision of a PhD Thesis, the participation in some related scientific projects and the coordination/management of several innovation projects and/or technological platforms/networks (such as Vanguard). She is now representing INEGI in two Knowledge Innovation Communities (KICs) of European Institute of Technology (EIT), namely EIT-Manufacturing and EIT-Raw Materials, and coordinating/supporting the development and fundraising of strategic integrated projects/proposals, covering the four main knowledge vectors of INEGI: (1) Advanced Manufacturing Technologies and Processes; (2) Smart Materials and Structural Solutions; (3) Product and System Development; (4) Energy and Environment.

Ana Rosanete Reis , Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (INEGI), FEUP campus, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 400, 4200-465, Porto, Portugal; Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto (FEUP), Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465, Porto, Portugal

Ana Rosanete Reis is assistant Professor at the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto, and author and co-author of several articles presented at international congresses and scientific journals. PhD in Materials Engineering from the University of Ghent (Belgium). Director of INEGI’s Advanced Manufacturing Technologies since 2008, specializes in manufacturing process namely Sheet metal Forming and casting. Is responsible for several research projects in monitoring and control of advanced manufacturing processes. Has collaborated in numerous projects with the industry, namely in the field of metalworking and industrial equipment.

Josef Hodek , COMTES FHT a.s., Průmyslova 995, 334 41, Dobrany, Czech Republic

Josef Hodek graduated from West Bohemian University in Pilsen, Czech Republic; Ph.D. degree in Electrical engineering in 2001. Josef worked as an R&D engineer for Haimer GmbH, Germany, and as an induction heating consultant. Josef joined COMTES FHT in 2010 as a FEM researcher. His main interests are FEM models of the metalworking processes as additive manufacturing process and induction heating.

Jan Dzugan , COMTES FHT a.s., Průmyslova 995, 334 41, Dobrany, Czech Republic

Jan Dzugan graduated from West Bohemian University in Pilsen, Czech Republic in 1995 where he also did his Ph.D in the field of Materials science in 1999. Already during his Ph.D studies he was employed at SKODA Research institute in Pilsen where he was dealing with mechanical testing. He worked 4 years at nuclear research institute Helmholtz Dresden-Rossendorf, Germany, where he was dealing with facture mechanics based service life assessment of nuclear power plants. Subsequently, he was working in the field of residual service life prolongation of Shinkansen wheel sets at Fracture Research Institute of Tohoku University in Japan. From 2006 he joined COMTES FHT in Pilsen, Czech Republic, where he established mechanical testing laboratory and later become R&D Director. Prof. Dzugan is author or co-author of over 200 scientific papers. He has been involved in over 30 publically funded projects. He is lecturing at West Bohemian University in Pilsen. He is supervisor or Bc., MSc. and Ph.D. students. His main scientific interest are: mechanical testing and additive manufacturing. He is member of many international technical organizations, e.g. ASTM, where he is leader of two groups dealing with miniature specimens standardization in general testing and for additive manufacturing processes.

References

Bandyopadhyay A, Bose S, Das S. 3D printing of biomaterials. MRS Bull 2015;40:108–14. https://doi.org/10.1557/mrs.2015.3.

Tofail SAM, Koumoulos EP, Bandyopadhyay A, Bose S, O’Donoghue L, Charitidis C. Additive manufacturing: scientific and technological challenges, market uptake and opportunities. Mater Today 2018;21:22–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mattod.2017.07.001.

DebRoy T, Wei HL, Zuback JS, Mukherjee T, Elmer JW, Milewski JO, et al. Additive manufacturing of metallic components – Process, structure and properties. Prog Mater Sci 2018;92:112–224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2017.10.001.

Mirkoohi E, Seivers DE, Garmestani H, Liang SY. Heat source modeling in selective laser melting. Materials (Basel) 2019;12:1–18. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132052.

ASTM International. ASTM International Technical Committee F42 on Additive Manufacturing Technologies 2013:19428.

Mazumder J, Schifferer A, Choi J. Direct materials deposition: designed macro and microstructure. Mater Res Soc Symp - Proc 1999;542:51–63. https://doi.org/10.1557/proc-542-51.

Hofmeister W, Griffith M, Ensz M, Smugeresky J. Solidification in direct metal deposition by LENS processing. Jom 2001;53:30–4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-001-0066-z.

Gasser A, Backes G, Kelbassa I, Weisheit A, Wissenbach K. Laser Additive Manufacturing: Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) and Selective Laser Melting (SLM) in Turbo-Engine Applications. Laser Tech J 2010;7:58–63. https://doi.org/10.1002/latj.201090029.

Liu R, Wang Z, Sparks T, Liou F, Newkirk J. Aerospace applications of laser additive manufacturing. Elsevier Ltd; 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-100433-3.00013-0.

Rashid A. Additive Manufacturing Technologies. CIRP Encycl Prod Eng 2019:39–46. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53120-4_16866.

Sames WJ, List FA, Pannala S, Dehoff RR, Babu SS. The metallurgy and processing science of metal additive manufacturing. Int Mater Rev 2016;61:315–60. https://doi.org/10.1080/09506608.2015.1116649.

Wolff S, Lee T, Faierson E, Ehmann K, Cao J. Anisotropic properties of directed energy deposition (DED)-processed Ti–6Al–4V. J Manuf Process 2016;24:397–405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2016.06.020.

Muller P, Mognol P, Hascoet JY. Modeling and control of a direct laser powder deposition process for Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) parts manufacturing. J Mater Process Technol 2013;213:685–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2012.11.020.

Antony K, Arivazhagan N, Senthilkumaran K. Numerical and experimental investigations on laser melting of stainless steel 316L metal powders. J Manuf Process 2014;16:345–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2014.04.001.

Zhang K, Wang S, Liu W, Shang X. Characterization of stainless steel parts by Laser Metal Deposition Shaping. Mater Des 2014;55:104–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2013.09.006.

Li J, Deng D, Hou X, Wang X, Ma G, Wu D, et al. Microstructure and performance optimisation of stainless steel formed by laser additive manufacturing. Mater Sci Technol (United Kingdom) 2016;32:1223–30. https://doi.org/10.1080/02670836.2015.1114774.

Kobryn PA, Semiatin SL. Mechanical Properties of Laser-Deposited Ti-6Al-4V P.A. Kobryn and S.L. Semiatin Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/MLLMP, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7817 2013:179–86.

Ahmadi A, Mirzaeifar R, Moghaddam NS, Turabi AS, Karaca HE, Elahinia M. Effect of manufacturing parameters on mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel parts fabricated by selective laser melting: A computational framework. Mater Des 2016;112:328–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2016.09.043.

Guo P, Zou B, Huang C, Gao H. Study on microstructure, mechanical properties and machinability of efficiently additive manufactured AISI 316L stainless steel by high-power direct laser deposition. J Mater Process Technol 2017;240:12–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2016.09.005.

Suryawanshi J, Prashanth KG, Ramamurty U. Mechanical behavior of selective laser melted 316L stainless steel. Mater Sci Eng A 2017;696:113–21. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2017.04.058.

N. Iqbal, E. Jimenez-Melero, U. Ankalkhope and JL. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 316L Stainless Steel Fabricated Using Selective Laser Melting. MRS Adv 2019;4:2431–9. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1557/adv.2019.251.

Saboori A, Aversa A, Bosio F, Bassini E, Librera E, De Chirico M, et al. An investigation on the effect of powder recycling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AISI 316L produced by Directed Energy Deposition. Mater Sci Eng A 2019;766:138360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2019.138360.

Bosio F, Saboori A, Lacagnina A, Librera E, de Chirico M, Biamino S, et al. Directed energy deposition of 316L steel: Effect of type of powders and gas related parameters. Euro PM 2018 Congr Exhib 2020.

Saboori A, Toushekhah M, Aversa A, Lai M, Lombardi M, Biamino S, et al. Critical Features in the Microstructural Analysis of AISI 316L Produced By Metal Additive Manufacturing. Metallogr Microstruct Anal 2020;9:92–6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13632-019-00604-6.

Rueden CT, Schindelin J, Hiner MC, DeZonia BE, Walter AE, Arena ET, et al. ImageJ2: ImageJ for the next generation of scientific image data. BMC Bioinformatics 2017;18:1–26. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12859-017-1934-z.

Tu H, Schmauder S, Li Y. 3D optical measurement and numerical simulation of the fracture behavior of Al6061 laser welded joints. Eng Fract Mech 2019;206:501–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfracmech.2018.12.005.

Azinpour E, Darabi R, Cesar de Sa J, Santos A, Hodek J, Dzugan J. Fracture analysis in directed energy deposition (DED) manufactured 316L stainless steel using a phase-field approach. Finite Elem Anal Des 2020;177:103417. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.finel.2020.103417.

Rousselier G. Dissipation in porous metal plasticity and ductile fracture. J Mech Phys Solids 2001;49:1727–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5096(01)00013-8.

Rousselier G. Ductile fracture models and their potential in local approach of fracture. Nucl Eng Des 1987;105:97–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/0029-5493(87)90234-2.

King WE, Barth HD, Castillo VM, Gallegos GF, Gibbs JW, Hahn DE, et al. Observation of keyhole-mode laser melting in laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing. J Mater Process Technol 2014;214:2915–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2014.06.005.

Darvish K, Chen ZW, Pasang T. Reducing lack of fusion during selective laser melting of CoCrMo alloy: Effect of laser power on geometrical features of tracks. Mater Des 2016;112:357–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2016.09.086.

Wolff SJ, Lin S, Faierson EJ, Liu WK, Wagner GJ, Cao J. A framework to link localized cooling and properties of directed energy deposition (DED)-processed Ti-6Al-4V. Acta Mater 2017;132:106–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2017.04.027.

Ji S, Gu Q, Xia B. Porosity dependence of mechanical properties of solid materials. J Mater Sci 2006;41:1757–68. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-006-2871-9.

Mukherjee T, Zuback JS, De A, DebRoy T. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing. Sci Rep 2016;6:1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep19717.

R. Byron Bird Warren E. Stewart Edwin N. Lightfoo, Bird RB, Stewart WE, Lightfoot EN. Transport Phenomena, Revised 2nd Edition. John Wiley Sons, Inc 2006:780. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690070245.

Abràmoff MD, Magalhães PJ, Ram SJ. Image processing with imageJ. Biophotonics Int 2004;11:36–41. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420005615.ax4.

Del Guercio G, Galati M, Saboori A, Fino P, Iuliano L. Microstructure and Mechanical Performance of Ti–6Al–4V Lattice Structures Manufactured via Electron Beam Melting (EBM): A Review. Acta Metall Sin (English Lett 2020;33:183–203. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40195-020-00998-1.

Izadi M, Farzaneh A, Gibson I, Rolfe B. The Effect of Process Parameters and Mechanical Properties of Direct Energy Deposited Stainless Steel 316. Solid Free Fabr 2017 Proc 28th Annu Int Solid Free Fabr Symp – An Addit Manuf Conf 2017:1058–67.

Gao X, Wang T, Kim J. On ductile fracture initiation toughness: Effects of void volume fraction, void shape and void distribution. Int J Solids Struct 2005;42:5097–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2005.02.028.

Published

2021-01-10

Issue

Section

Original Article