Finite Element Simulation of Friction Stir Welding of Inconel 718 to Nimonic 80A




Friction stir welding, Nickel-based super-alloy, Abaqus software, grain refinement, dynamic recrystallization


This paper presents results of simulation of friction stir dissimilar welding of 5 mm thick, Nickel-based super-alloys, Inconel 718, and Nimonic 80A using Abaqus software. Four different trials were done to understand the influence of tool rotation speed on temperature distribution in weld zone while travel speed remains constant. The temperature in the weld zone was found to increase with the increase in tool rotation speed and travel speed. The temperature on the advancing side of the tool was higher than that of the retreating side. The tensile strength of weldment was found, by simulation, to be 25% more than that of base metal, Inconel 718. This may be due to grain refinement and dynamic recrystallization during FSW. The simulated bend test revealed an adequate level of ductility of weldments.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Tom Saju, School of Mechanical Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

Tom Saju is presently doing his Ph.D. in welding technology from the Vellore Institute of Technology. Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. He has completed his M Tech in 2019 from Karunya Institute of Technology and Science, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, and B Tech degree in 2016 from Mahatma Gandhi University, Kerala, India. His area of interest includes similar and dissimilar welding technology, Finite element analysis, material characterization, fracture studies, etc.

M Velu, School of Mechanical Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

M. Velu is an Associate Professor in the School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore, India. He received his Ph.D. in the field of Fracture and Fatigue of Dissimilar Welded Joints in 2015 from VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India, M. E degree in Engineering Design from College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India in the year 1999 and B.E degree in Mechanical Engineering from University of Madras, India in the year 1995. His area of interest includes Similar Welding, Dissimilar Welding, Fracture, and Fatigue of metals. He has more than 20 years of teaching experience and 10 years of research experience. He has published research papers in the field of Fracture, Fatigue, and Welding. Currently, he is working in the field of Fracture, Fatigue of Dissimilar Welded Joints of Ni-based Super-alloys for Gas Turbine applications.


R. P. Singh, S. Dubey, A. Singh, and S. Kumar, “Materials Today: Proceedings A review paper on friction stir welding process,” Mater. Today Proc., pp. 5–10, 2020.

D. Deloison, C. Darcourt, A. Abisror, C. Decker, B. Journet, “Recent Advances in Welding Simulation of Aeronautical Components”, Eur. J. Comput. Mech. (n.d.) 377–389.

C. Sorensen and T. Nelson, “Friction stir welding of ferrous and nickel alloys,” Frict. Stir Weld. Process., no. Ref 2, pp. 111–121, 2007.

R. S. Mishra and Z. Y. Ma, “Friction stir welding and processing,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R Reports, vol. 50, no. 1–2, pp. 1–78, 2005.

D. Mishra, R. Basu, S. Dutta, S. K. Pal, and D. Chakravarty, “A review on sensor-based monitoring and control of friction stir welding process and a roadmap to Industry 4.0,” J. Manuf. Process., vol. 36, no. November, pp. 373–397, 2018.

R. Anand and V. G. Sridhar, “Studies on process parameters and tool geometry selecting aspects of friction stir welding – A review,” Mater. Today Proc., vol. 27, pp. 576–583, 2020.

A. A. O. Mmc, R. A. Prado, L. E. Murr, K. F. Soto, and J. C. Mcclure, “Self-optimization in tool wear for friction-stir welding of,” vol. 349, pp. 156–165, 2003.

S. Hirasawa, H. Badarinarayan, K. Okamoto, T. Tomimura, and T. Kawanami, “Analysis of effect of tool geometry on plastic flow during friction stir spot welding using particle method,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., vol. 210, no. 11, pp. 1455–1463, 2010.

Y. Tozaki, Y. Uematsu, and K. Tokaji, “Effect of tool geometry on microstructure and static strength in friction stir spot welded aluminium alloys,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., vol. 47, no. 15, pp. 2230–2236, 2007.

K. Gangwar and M. Ramulu, “Friction stir welding of titanium alloys: A review,” Mater. Des., vol. 141, pp. 230–255, 2018.

P. Gilles, D. Pont, E. Keim, J. Devaux, T. Areva, P. De, F.-P. Défense, R.J. Récamier, F.-L. Cedex, “Framatome-ANP Experience in Numerical Simulation o f Welding”, Eur. J. Comput. Mech., 343–375, 2004.

Thomas Dupuy, Chainarong Srikunwong, “Resistance Welding Numerical Simulation-A Promising Technique”, Eur. J. Comput. Mech., 313–341, 2004.

R. Fortunier, J.M. Bergheau, “Modelling of heat transfers, phase changes, and mechanical behaviour during welding”, Eur. J. Comput. Mech., 231–245. 2004

Special Metals, “IN718 Datasheet,” pp. 1–28, 2007.

Special Metals Corporation, “NIMONIC alloy 80A-Specification sheet,” Smc-099, pp. 1–24, 2004.

K. N. Salloomi, “Fully coupled thermomechanical simulation of friction stir welding of aluminium 6061-T6 alloy T-joint,” J. Manuf. Process., vol. 45, no. June, pp. 746–754, 2019.

H. K. Farahani, M. Ketabchi, and S. Zangeneh, “Determination of Johnson-Cook Plasticity Model Parameters for Inconel718,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 5284–5293, 2017.

M. E. Korkmaz and M. Günay, “Confirmation of Johnson-Cook Model Parameters for Nimonic 80A alloy by Finite Element Method,” J. Polytech., vol. 0900, no. 3, pp. 625–632, 2019.

V. Soundararajan, S. Zekovic, and R. Kovacevic, “Thermo-mechanical model with adaptive boundary conditions for friction stir welding of Al 6061,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., vol. 45, no. 14, pp. 1577–1587, 2005.

B. G. Kiral, M. Tabanoglu, and H. T. Serindag, “Finite element modeling of friction stir welding in aluminium alloys joint,” Math. Comput. Appl., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 122–131, 2013.

H. Das, M. Mondal, S. T. Hong, J. W. Lee, and H. H. Cho, “Texture and precipitation behavior of friction stir welded Inconel 825 alloy,” Mater. Today Commun., vol. 25, no. May, p. 101295, 2020.

J. Kangazian and M. Shamanian, “Microstructure and mechanical characterization of Incoloy 825 Ni-based alloy welded to 2507 super duplex stainless steel through dissimilar friction stir welding,” Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China (English Ed., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1677–1688, 2019.

K. H. Song, H. Fujii, and K. Nakata, “Effect of welding speed on microstructural and mechanical properties of friction stir welded Inconel 600,” Mater. Des., vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 3972–3978, 2009.

M. M. Z. Ahmed, B. P. Wynne, and J. P. Martin, “Effect of friction stir welding speed on mechanical properties and microstructure of nickel-based Super-alloy Inconel 718,” Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 680–687, 2013.

M. M. Z. Ahmed, B. P. Wynne, and J. P. Martin, “Effect of friction stir welding speed on mechanical properties and microstructure of nickel-based Super-alloy Inconel 718,” Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 680–687, Nov. 2013.

K. H. Song and K. Nakata, “Microstructural and mechanical properties of friction-stir-welded and post-heat-treated Inconel 718 alloy,” J. Alloys Compd., vol. 505, no. 1, pp. 144–150, 2010.

K. H. Song and K. Nakata, “Mechanical properties of friction-stir-welded Inconel 625 alloy,” Mater. Trans., vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 2498–2501, 2009.





Data-Driven Modeling and Simulation – Theory, Methods & Applications