SPARQL Generation with an NMT-based Approach
Keywords:SPARQL Generation, Neural Machine Translation, Question Answering, Transformer
SPARQL is a powerful query language which has been widely used in various natural language question answering (QA) systems. As the advances of deep neural networks, Neural Machine Translation (NMT) models are employed to directly translate natural language questions to SPARQL queries in recent years. In this paper, we propose an NMT-based approach with Transformer model to generate SPARQL queries. Transformer model is chosen due to its relatively high efficiency and effectiveness. We design a format to encode a SPARQL query into a simple sequence with only RDF triples reserved. The main purpose of this step is to shorten the sequences and reduce the complexity of the target language. Moreover, we employ entity type tags to further resolve mistranslated problems. The proposed approach is evaluated against three open-domain question answering datasets (QALD-7, QALD-8, and LC-QuAD) on BLEU score and accuracy, and obtains outstanding results (83.49%, 90.13%, and 76.32% on BLEU score, respectively) which considerably outperform all known studies.
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