Identification and Classification of Risk Factors in Distributed Agile Software Development


  • Esha Khanna Computer Engineering, J. C. Bose University of Science and Technology, YMCA, Faridabad, Haryana, India
  • Rashmi Popli Computer Engineering, J. C. Bose University of Science and Technology, YMCA, Faridabad, Haryana, India
  • Naresh Chauhan Computer Engineering, J. C. Bose University of Science and Technology, YMCA, Faridabad, Haryana, India



Risk Management, Distributed agile software development, Agile software developments, Distributed software development


Distributed Agile Software Development (DASD) is an amalgamation of Agile Software Development (ASD) with Distributed Software Development (DSD). Although DASD integrates the speed benefits of ASD with the cost benefits of DSD, however, it brings along various risk factors that arise due to the fact that both ASD and DSD works on a different set of principles. These associated risks must be addressed and managed well in time for the successful completion of the project. This paper reviews the current literature and presents the current challenges of Risk Management in the DASD environment. This paper also determines 71 risk factors associated with DASD and analyses them based on their causes and sources. Further, these risk factors are segregated into 11 different categories. Timely management of these risks may reduce the uncertainty of project failure in the DASD environment.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Esha Khanna, Computer Engineering, J. C. Bose University of Science and Technology, YMCA, Faridabad, Haryana, India

Esha Khanna is currently pursuing Ph. D. in Computer Engineering from J. C. Bose University of Science and Technology, YMCA, Faridabad. She is Master of Technology in Computer Engineering and Bachelor of Technology in Computer Science and Engineering. She has teaching experience of 7 years. Her main research area focuses on Machine Learning, Software Testing, Software Engineering and Data mining.

Rashmi Popli, Computer Engineering, J. C. Bose University of Science and Technology, YMCA, Faridabad, Haryana, India

Rashmi Popli is Deputy Dean, Consultancy in J.C. Bose University of Science and Technology, YMCA Faridabad. She has 15 years of rich experience in Teaching and 4 research scholars are pursuing PhD under her guidance and supervision. Her areas of specialization include Software Engineering, Testing, Network Security and automation of software. She has published more than 50 research papers in various International Journals and conferences. She is a life time member of ISTE and CSI. She is also holding the position of Director, Industrial Relations Cell since 2017 working towards opening the various avenues where University can collaborate with Industry.

Naresh Chauhan, Computer Engineering, J. C. Bose University of Science and Technology, YMCA, Faridabad, Haryana, India

Naresh Chauhan received his Ph.D. (Computer Engg.) from MD University, Rohtak (Haryana) in 2008, M.Tech. (Information Technology) from GGS IndraPrastha University, Delhi in 2004 and B.Tech. (Computer Engg.) from NIT Kurukshetra, in the year 1992. He has about 28 years of experience in teaching and Industries. He served Bharat Electronics Ltd. and Motorola India Ltd. Presently, he is working as Professor in Deptt. of Computer Engg. at JC Bose University of Science & Technology, Faridabad (India). His research interest includes Internet technologies, Software Engineering, Software Testing and Real time systems. He has published two books on Software Testing and Operating Systems published from Oxford University Press, India.


Boehm, Barry W, ‘Software Risk Management: Principles and Practices’, IEEE Software, 8:1, 32–41, 1991.

Keshlaf, AA, Hashim, K, ‘A Model and Prototype Tool to Manage Software Risks’, Proceedings of the First Asia-Pacific Conference on Quality Software, APAQS ’00, IEEE Computer Society, 297–305, 2000.

Supriya V, Shrivastava, HD, ‘A Framework for Risk Management in Globally distributed agile software development’, Interscience Management Review, 2:1, 32–41, 2010.

Ramesh B, Cao L, Mohan K, Xu P, ‘Can distributed software development be agile?’, Communications of the ACM, 49:10, 41–46, 2006.

A. Mcdonald, R. Welland, ‘Agile Web Engineering (AWE) Process: Perceptions Within A Fortune 500 Financial Services Company’, Journal Of Web Engineering, Vol 4, Issue 4, 2005.

Kitchenham B, Charters S, ‘Guidelines for performing systematic literature reviews in software engineering’, Technical Report EBSE. School of Computer Science and Mathematics, 2007.

Eva MS, Dirk R, Christian J, ‘Improving risk management in a scaled agile environment. International conference on Agile Software development XP’, Agile process in software Engineering and Extreme Programming, Springer, 132–141, 2020.

Mohammad E et. al., ‘A risk management framework for distributed scrum using PRINCE2 methodology’, Bulletin of Electrical and Engineering Informatics, 9:3, 1299–1310, 2020.

Wan S, Wan H, Arzi A, ‘Risk Management framework for distributed software team- A case study of Telecommunication company’, Procidia Computer science, Science Direct, 2019.

Suprka S, Urvashi R, ‘Risk Management approach for distributed agile developments projects’, Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 23, 2019.

Edzreena EO, Des G, Darryl S, ‘Agile risk management using software agents. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing’, Springer, 9: 823–841, 2018.

Suprika VS, Urvashi R, ‘A Risk Management Framework for distributed agile projects. Information and software technology’, Elsevier, 1–15, 2017.

Elbanna A, Sarker S, ‘Risks of agile software development: Learning from Adopters’, IEEE Software, 33:5, 72–79, 2016.

Suprika VS, Urvashi R, ‘Categorization of risk factors for distributed agile projects. Information and software technology’, Elsevier, 1–15, 2014.

Navid V, Raja MA, ‘Distributed software development Agile Risk management framework: A systematic Literature Review’, M. Tech Thesis, Dept of CSE, Chalmers University of tehnology, University of Gothenbung, Sweden, 2014.

Khanna E, Popli R, Chauhan N, ‘Artificial Intelligence based Risk Management Framework for Distributed Agile Software Development’, 8th International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 657–660, doi: 10.1109/SPIN52536.2021.9566000, 2021.

Keshlaf, Ayad A, Riddle S, ‘Risk Management for Web and Distributed Software Development Projects’, Internet Monitoring and Protection (ICIMP), Fifth International Conference on, IEEE, 2010.

Lamersdorf A, Jurgen M, Alicia FVT, Carlos RS, ‘A Risk-Driven Model for Work Allocation in Global Software Development Projects’, Proceedings of the 6th IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE11, IEEE Computer Society, 8: 15–18, 2011.

Nguyen, Thanh HD, Bram A, Ahmed EH, ‘Does Geographical Distance Effect Distributed Development Teams: How Aggregation Bias in Software Artifacts Causes Contradictory Findings’, Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE), 27th International Symposium, IEEE, 2016.

Yasser C et al., ‘Software Project Management Tools in Global Software Development: A Systematic Mapping Study’, SpringerPlus, 5:1, 2006.

Nurdiani I, Ronald J, Darja Š, Damian D, ‘Risk Identification and Risk Mitigation Instruments for Global Software Development: Systematic Review and Survey Results. Global Software Engineering Workshop (ICGSEW)’, Sixth IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, 2011.

Nordio M, Christian HE, Betrand M, Julian T, Carlo G, Elizabeth DN, ‘How Do Distribution and Time Zones Affect Software Development? A Case Study on Communication’, Global Software Engineering, 2011.

Bosnić I, Ciccozzit F, Ćavrak I, Mirandola R, Orlić M, ‘Multi-dimensional Assessment of Risks in A Distributed Software Development Course. Collaborative Teaching of Globally Distributed Software Development (CTGDSD)’, 3rd International Workshop, IEEE, 2013.

Honório FJ, Ivaldir RR, Hermano PM, Dennis SMS, ‘Elicitation of Communication Inherent Risks in Distributed Software Development’, Global Software Engineering Workshops (ICGSEW), IEEE Seventh International Conference, 2012.

Mudumba V, Lee OD, ‘A New Perspective on GDSD Risk Management: Agile Risk Management’, 5th IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering (ICGSE), International Journal of Computer Science, 35:4, 2008.

Wattanapokasin W, Wanchai R, ‘Cross-cultural Risk Assessment Model’, International Conference on Signal Processing Systems, IEEE, 2009.

Reed A, Knight L., ‘Project Risk Differences Between Virtual nd Collocated Teams’, Journal of Computer Information Systems, 51:1, 19-30, 2010.

Betz S, Hickl S, Oberweis A., ‘ Risk Management in Global Software Development Process Planning’, Proceedings of the 37th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA11, IEEE Computer Society, 357–361, 2011.

Jurgen M., ‘Risk Management in Global Software Development Projects: Challenges, Solutions, and Experience’. Global Software Engineering Workshop (ICGSEW), IEEE, 2011.

Khan Q, Ghayyur S, ‘Software Risks and Mitigation in Global Software Development’, Journal of Theoretical & Applied Information Technology, 22:1, 2010.

Abufardeh S, Kenneth M, ‘The Impact of Global Software Cultural and Linguistic Aspects on Global Software Development Process (GSD): Issues and Challenges’. 4th International Conference on New Trends in Information Science and Service Science (NISS), 133–138, 2010.

Rowel R, Alfeche K,’Requirements Engineering A good practice guide’, John Wiley and Sons, 1997.

J. A. Goguen and C. Linde,’ Techniques for requirements elicitation’, Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Requirements Engineering, pp. 152–164, 1993.

Pressman, R.S., ‘Software engineering: a practitioner’s approach’ McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2010.

Chauhan, N, ‘Software Testing: Principles and Practices’, Oxford Publications, 2010.

N. Sánchez-Gómez, et al., ‘The importance of testing in the early stages of smart contract development life cycle’, Journal of Web Engineering, special issue: Advanced Practices in Web Engineering, 2020.

Bhasin, H., Khanna, E., Sudha, ‘Black Box testing based on Requirement Analysis and Design Specification’, International Journal of Computer Applications (IJCA), volume 87, no. 18, 2014.

R. D. A. Neves, Et. Al., ‘Morpheus Web Testing: A Tool For Generating Test Cases For Widget Based Web Applications’, Journal Of Web Engineering, Vol 21, Issue 22, 2021.

Sengupta B, Chandra S, and Sinha V, ‘A research agenda for distributed software development’ in Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Software engineering (ICSE ’06). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 731–740, 2006.