• CARLA VAIRETTI Computer Science Department. Pontifcia Universidad Catlica de Chile Av. Vicu˜na Mackenna 4860, Santiago, Chile
  • ROSA ALARCON Computer Science Department, Pontifcia Universidad Catlica de Chile Santiago, Chile
  • JESUS BELLIDO Computer Science Department, Pontifcia Universidad Catlica de Chile Santiago, Chile


Dynamic service composition, semantic Web services, service behaviour, control-flow


Dynamic Web services composition aims to generate a composition plan at run-time. Semantic-based techniques rely on annotating services to facilitate the discovery of the service components that satisfy a user need (matchmaking). The matchmaking process places most attention on service selection rather than on the behaviour of the composed service, and the service components are arranged considering simple control-flow patterns (mainly sequence). In real life scenarios, however, composed service behaviour follows complex control-flow patterns that satisfy the needs of business processes, which are gen- erally defined through manual service composition. In this paper we present a technique to derive complex composed service behaviour semantics, such semantics make possible to dynamically and automatically discover complex services compositions. We have im- plemented and tested our technique with a known dataset with better performance when compared to simple service composition strategies.



Download data is not yet available.


Agarwal, S. (2007) , Formal description of web services for expressive matchmaking, (Doctoral

dissertation, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology).

Ahmad, H., & Dowaji, S. (2013) , Linked-owl: A new approach for dynamic linked data service

workflow composition, Webology, 10(1).

Alarcon, R., & Wilde, E. (2010, April) , Linking data from restful services, In Third Workshop on

Linked Data on the Web, Raleigh, North Carolina (April 2010).

Alowisheq, A., Millard, D. E., & Tiropanis, T. (2009), Express: Expressing restful semantic services

using domain ontologies, In The semantic web-iswc 2009 (pp. 941–948). Springer.

Arenas, M., Conca, S., & Prez, J. (2012), Counting beyond a yottabyte, or how sparql 1.1 property

paths will prevent adoption of the standard, In Proceedings of the 21st international conference on

world wide web (pp. 629638).

Aversano, L., & Taneja, K. (2006), A genetic pro- gramming approach to support the design of

service compositions, International Journal of Computer Systems Science & Engineering, 21(4),


Bener, A. B., Ozadali, V., & Ilhan, E. S. (2009) , Semantic matchmaker with precondition and

effect matching using swrl, Expert Systems with Applications, 36(5), 9371–9377.

Bellido, J., Alarcon, R., & Pautasso, C. (2013) , Control-flow patterns for decen-

tralized restful service composition, ACM Trans. Web, 8(1), 5:1–5:30. Retrieved from

http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2535911 doi: 10.1145/ 2535911

Bansal, A., Blake, M. B., Kona, S., Bleul, S., Weise, T., & Jaeger, M. C. (2008, July). , WSC-08:

continuing the web services challenge, In E-Commerce Technology and the Fifth IEEE Conference

on Enterprise Computing, E-Commerce and E-Services, 2008 10th IEEE Conference on (pp. 351-


Brogi, A., Corfini, S., & Popescu, R. (2008), Semantics-based composition-oriented discovery of

web services, ACM Transactions on Internet Technology (TOIT), 8(4), 19.

Chabeb, Y., Tata, S., & Ozanne, A. (2010) , Yasa-m: A semantic web service matchmaker, In

Advanced information networking and applications (aina), 2010 24th ieee international conference

on (pp. 966–973).

Chinnici, R., Moreau, J., Ryman, A., & Weerawarana, S. (2009) , Web services description lan-

guage (wsdl), version 2.0, part 1: Core language, w3c recommendation, 16 june 2007. World Wide

Web Consortium (W3C), URL: http://www. w3. org/TR/2007/REC-wsdl20-20070626/(04.02.


De Bruijn, J., Lausen, H., Polleres, A., & Fensel, D. (2006), The web service modeling language

wsml: An overview, In The semantic web: Research and applications (pp. 590–604). Springer.

Dietze, S., Benn, N., Yu, H. Q., Pedrinaci, C., Makni, B., Liu, D., and Domingue, J. (2010) ,

Comprehensive service semantics and light-weight Linked Services: towards an integrated approach

DaMello, D. A., Ananthanarayana, V., & Salian, S. (2011), A review of dynamic web service

composition techniques, In Advanced computing (pp. 85–97). Springer.

Domingue, J., Galizia, S., & Cabral, L. (2005) , Choreography in irs-iiicoping with heterogeneous

interaction patterns in web services, In The semantic webiswc 2005 (pp. 171–185). Springer.

Dustdar, S., & Schreiner, W. (2005), A survey on web services composition, International Journal

On Web and Grid Services, 1(1), 1–30.

Ghafarian, T., & Kahani, M. (2009, July), Semantic web service composition based on ant colony

optimization method, In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Networked Digital

Technologies (pp. 171-176). Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.

Gooneratne, N., Tari, Z., & Harland, J. (2007, March) , Verification of web service descriptions

using graph-based traversal algorithms, In Proceedings of the 2007 ACM symposium on Applied

computing (pp. 1385-1392). ACM.

Hadley, M. (2009, August) , Web application description language, World Wide Web Consortium,

Member Submission SUBM-wadl-20090831.

Hamadi, R., & Benatallah, B. (2003) , A petri net-based model for web service composition, In

Proceedings of the 14th australasian database conference-volume 17 (pp. 191–200).

He, J., Zhang, Y., Huang, G., & Cao, J. (2012, February) , A smart web service based

on the context of things, ACM Trans. Internet Technol., 11(3), 13:1–13:23. Retrieved from

http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2078316.2078321 doi: 10.1145/2078316.2078321

Hoffmann, J., Bertoli, P., & Pistore, M. (2007), Web service composition as planning, revisited:

In between background theories and initial state uncertainty, In Proceedings of the 22nd National

Conference of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence (pp. 1013-1018). Palo Alto, CA:


Kil, H., & Nam, W. (2013) , Semantic web service composition via model checking techniques,

International Journal of Web and Grid Services, 9(4), 339–350.

Klein, M., Konig-Ries, B., & Mussig, M. (2005) , What is needed for semantic service descriptions?

a proposal for suitable language constructs, International Journal of Web and Grid Services, 1(3),


Klusch, M., Gerber, A., & Schmidt, M. (2005), Semantic Web service composition planning with

OWLS-Xplan, In Proceedings of the AAAI Fall Symposium on Semantic Web and Agents, Ar-

lington, VA. Palo Alto, CA: AAAI.

Klusch, M., Kapahnke, P., & Zinnikus, I. (2009) , Hybrid adaptive web service selection with

sawsdl-mx and wsdl-analyzer, In The semantic web: Research and applications (pp. 550–564).


Kopecky, J., Vitvar, T., Bournez, C., & Farrell, J. (2007), Sawsdl: Semantic annotations for wsdl

and xml schema., Internet Computing, IEEE, 11(6), 60–67.

Kylau, U., Stollberg, M., Weber, I., & Barros, A. (2012), Service functionality and behavior. In

Handbook of service description, (pp. 269–293). Springer.

Krummenacher, R., Norton, B., & Marte, A. (2010), Towards linked open services and processes,

In Future Internet-FIS 2010 (pp. 68-77). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

J. Lathem, K. Gomadam, and A. P. Sheth , Sa-rest and (s)mashups : Adding semantics to restful

services, In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Conference on Semantic Computing, pages

–476, 2007.

Maleshkova, Maria; Pedrinaci, Carlos and Domingue, John (2009) , Supporting the creation of

semantic RESTful service descriptions, In: 8th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC

, 25-29 Oct 2009, Washington D.C., USA.

Maleshkova, M., Kopecka, J., & Pedrinaci, C. (2009, January) , Adapting SAWSDL for seman-

tic annotations of restful services, In On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems: OTM 2009

Workshops (pp. 917-926). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

McGuinness, D. L., Van Harmelen, F., et al. (2004) , Owl web ontology language, W3C recom-

mendation, 10.

Nayak, R., & Bose, A. (2015) , A Data Mining Based Method for Discovery of Web Services and

their Compositions, In Real World Data Mining Applications(pp. 325-342). Springer International


Pautasso, C. (2009a) , Composing restful services with jopera, In A. Bergel & J. Fabry (Eds.),

Software composition (Vol. 5634, p. 142-159). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Pautasso, C. (2009c, September) , Restful web service composition with bpel for rest, Data Knowl.

Eng., 68(9), 851-866. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/ citation.cfm?id=1550965.1551240 doi:


Pautasso, C. (2009) , RESTful Web service composition with BPEL for REST, Data & Knowledge

Engineering, 68(9), 851-866.

Pedrinaci, C., Lambert, D., Maleshkova, M., Liu, D., Domingue, J., & Krummenacher, R. (2011),

Adaptive service binding with lightweight semantic web services, In Service engineering (pp.

. Springer

Pedrinaci, Carlos, et al. , iServe: a linked services publishing platform, CEUR workshop proceed-

ings. Vol. 596. 2010.

Pistore, M., Barbon, F., Bertoli, P., Shaparau, D., & Traverso, P. (2004), Planning and monitoring

web service composition, In C. Bussler & D. Fensel (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th International

Conference on Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems and Applications (LNCS 3192, pp.


Rodrguez-Mier, P., Mucientes, M., Lama, M., & Couto, M. I. (2010), Composition of web services

through genetic programming, Evolutionary Intel- ligence, 3(3-4), 171–186. doi:10.1007/s12065-

- 0042-z

Rodrguez-Mier, P., Mucientes, M., Vidal, J. C., & Lama, M. (2012), An optimal and complete

algorithm for automatic web service composition, International Journal of Web Services Research

(IJWSR), 9(2), 1-20.

Rodriguez Mier, P., Pedrinaci, C., Lama, M., & Mucientes, M. (2015) An Integrated Semantic

Web Service Discovery and Composition Framework.

Rosenberg, F., Curbera, F., Duftler, M. J., & Khalaf, R. (2008). Composing restful services and

collaborative workflows: A lightweight approach, Internet Computing, IEEE, 12(5), 24-31.

Russell, N., Ter Hofstede, A. H., & Mulyar, N. (2006), Workflow controlflow patterns: A revised


Russell, N. C., Aalst, W. M. van der, & Hofstede, A. H. ter. (2009), Designing a workflow system

using coloured petri nets, In Transactions on petri nets and other models of concurrency iii (pp.

–24). Springer.

Sirin, E., Parsia, B., Wu, D., Hendler, J., & Nau, D. (2004), HTN planning for Web service

composition using SHOP2, Web Semantics: Science Services and Agents on the World Wide Web,

(4), 377–396. doi:10.1016/j.websem.2004.06.005

Ter Hofstede, Arthur HM, et al. , Modern Business Process Automation: YAWL and its support

environment, Springer Science & Business Media, 2009.

van Der Aalst, W. M., Ter Hofstede, A. H., Kiepuszewski, B., & Barros, A. P. (2003), Workflow

patterns. Distributed and parallel databases, 14(1), 5-51.

Verborgh, R., Steiner, T., Deursen, D., Van de Walle, R., & Valles, J. (2011, oct.). , Ef-

ficient runtime service discovery and consumption with hyperlinked restdesc, In Next genera-

tion web services practices (nwesp), 2011 7th international conference on (p. 373 -379). doi:


Verborgh, R., Steiner, T., Van Deursen, D., Coppens, S., Valles, J. G., & Van de Walle, R. (2012)

, Functional descriptions as the bridge between hypermedia apis and the semantic web, In Proceed-

ings of the third international workshop on restful design (pp. 3340). New York, NY, USA: ACM.

Retrieved from http://doi .acm.org/10.1145/2307819.2307828 doi: 10.1145/2307819.2307828

Vitvar, T., Kopecky, J., Zaremba, M., & Fensel, D. (2007, November), Wsmo-lite: Lightweight

semantic descriptions for services on the web , In Web Services, 2007. ECOWS’07. Fifth European

Conference on (pp. 77-86). IEEE.

Vitvar T., Kopecky J, Viskova J., and Fensel D. , WSMO-Lite Annotations for Web Services. In

the Semantic Web: Research and Applications, ESWC 2008

Xu, J., Chen, K., & Reiff-Marganiec, S. (2011), Using Markov decision process model with logic

scoring of preference model to optimize HTN Web services composition, International Journal of

Web Services Research, 8(2), 53–73. doi:10.4018/jwsr.2011040103

Zhang, Y., Zhang, X., & Liu, F. (2010), Semantic web service matchmaking based on service behav-

ior. In Anti-counterfeiting security and identification in communication (asid), 2010 international

conference on (pp. 184–188).