• PANKAJ KAMTHAN Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal


Feasibility, Iterative Development, Pattern, Quality Model, Semiotics, Stakeholder


The development and evolution of Web Applications is viewed from an engineering perspective. A Pattern-Oriented Web Engineering Methodology (POWEM) for deploying patterns as means for assuring the quality of Web Applications is presented. POWEM consists of a sequence of steps including setting goals, identifying stakeholder types, following a suitable development process model, identifying relevant quality attributes, and acquiring, selecting and applying suitable patterns. The feasibility issues involved in each step are examined. The use of patterns during macro- and micro-architecture design of a Web Application is illustrated. Finally, some directions for future research, including extensions to POWEM, are outlined.



Download data is not yet available.


Ahluwalia, K. S., & Jain, A. (2006). High Availability Design Patterns. The 13th Conference on Pattern

Languages of Programs (PLoP 2006), Portland, USA, October 21-23, 2006.

Buschmann, F., Henney, K., & Schmidt, D. C. (2007). Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture,

Volume 5: On Patterns and Pattern Languages. John Wiley and Sons.

Beck, K., & Andres, C. (2005). Extreme Programming Explained: Embrace Change (Second Edition).


Boreham, N. C. (1987). Causal Attribution by Sensing and Intuitive Types during Diagnostic Problem

Solving. Instructional Science, 16, 123-136.

Brajnik, G. (2001). Towards Valid Quality Models for Web Sites. The 7th Conference on Human Factors and

the Web (HFWeb 2001), Madison, USA, June 4-6, 2001.

Buschmann, F., Meunier, R., Rohnert, H., Sommerlad, P., & Stal, M. (1996). Pattern Oriented Software

Architecture, Volume 1: A System of Patterns. John Wiley and Sons.

Busse, D. (2002). Usable Web Design Patterns for World-Ready E-Commerce Sites. CHI 2002 Workshop on

Patterns in Practice: A Workshop for UI Designers, Minneapolis, USA, April 21, 2002.

Casteleyn, S., Garrigós, I., & Plessers, P. (2004). Pattern Definition to Refine Navigation Structure in

Hypermedia/Web Applications. The IADIS International Conference WWW/Internet 2004 (ICWI 2004),

Madrid, Spain, October 6-9, 2004.

Dromey, R. G. (2003). Software Quality - Prevention Versus Cure? Software Quality Journal, 11(3), 197-

Fowler, M., Rice, D., Foemmel, M., Hieatt, E., Mee, R., & Stafford, R. (2003). Patterns of Enterprise

Application Architecture. Addison-Wesley.

Fraternali, P., Matera, M., & Maurino, A. (2002). WQA: An XSL Framework for Analyzing the Quality of

Web Applications. The 2nd International Workshop on Web-Oriented Software Technology (IWWOST

, Malaga, Spain, June 10-11, 2002.

Gamma, E., Helm, R., Johnson, R., & Vlissides, J. (1995). Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-

Oriented Software. Addison-Wesley.

German, D. M., & Cowan, D. D. (2000). Towards a Unified Catalog of Hypermedia Design Patterns. The

rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2000), Maui, USA, January 4-7, 2000.

Gilb, T. (1988). Principles of Software Engineering Management. Addison-Wesley.

Graham, I. (2003). A Pattern Language for Web Usability. Addison-Wesley.

Hadjerrouit, S. (2005). Designing a Pedagogical Model for Web Engineering Education: An Evolutionary

Perspective. Journal of Information Technology Education, 4, 115-140.

Ivory, M. Y. (2001). An Empirical Foundation for Automated Web Interface Evaluation. PhD Thesis,

University of California, Berkeley, USA.

Jacobson, I., Booch, G., & Rumbaugh, J. (1999). The Unified Software Development Process. Addison-


Jacobson, I., Christerson, M., Jonsson, P., & Övergaard, G. (1992). Object-Oriented Software Engineering: A

Use Case Driven Approach. Addison-Wesley.

Kamthan, P. (2007). On the Prospects and Concerns of Integrating Open Source Software Environment in

Software Engineering Education. Journal of Information Technology Education, 6, 45-64.

Kappel, G., Pröll, B., Reich, S., & Retschitzegger, W. (2006). Web Engineering. John Wiley and Sons.

Keirsey, D. (1998). Please Understand Me II. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company.

Kotonya, G., & Sommerville, I. (1998). Requirements Engineering: Processes and Techniques. John Wiley

and Sons.

Kumar, K., & Welke, R. J. (1992). Methodology Engineering: A Proposal for Situation-Specific

Methodology Construction. In: Challenges and Strategies for Research in Systems Development. W. W.

Cotterman & J. A. Senn (Eds.). John Wiley and Sons, 257-269.

Lindland, O. I., Sindre, G., & Sølvberg, A. (1994). Understanding Quality in Conceptual Modeling. IEEE

Software, 11(2), 42-49.

Lyardet, F., & Rossi, G. (1998). Patterns for Designing Navigable Information Spaces. The 5th Conference

on Pattern Languages of Programs (PLoP 1998), Monticello, USA, August 11-14, 1998.

Lyardet, F., & Rossi, G. (2001). Web Usability Patterns. The 6th European Conference on Pattern Languages

of Programs (EuroPLoP 2001), Irsee, Germany, July 4-8, 2001.

Lyardet, F., Rossi, G., & Schwabe, D. (1999). Patterns for Adding Search Capabilities to Web Information

Systems. The 4th European Conference on Pattern Languages of Programming and Computing (EuroPLoP

, Irsee, Germany, July 8-10, 1999.

Manolescu, D., & Kunzle, A. (2001). Several Patterns for eBusiness Applications. The 8th Conference on

Pattern Languages of Programs (PLoP 2001), Monticello, USA. September 11-15, 2001.

Marks, M., & Hong, D. (2006). Web Design Patterns Collection Technical Design. Center for Document

Engineering Technical Report CDE2006-TR09. University of California, Berkeley, USA.

Masuda, G., Sakamoto, N., & Ushijima, K. (1999). Evaluation and Analysis of Applying Design Patterns.

International Workshop on the Principles of Software Evolution (IWPSE 1999), Fukuoka, Japan, July 16-17,

McPhail, J. C., & Deugo, D. (2001). Deciding on a Pattern. The Fourteenth International Conference on

Industrial and Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems (IEA/AIE 2001),

Budapest, Hungary, June 4-7, 2001.

Mendes, E., & Mosley, N. (2006). Web Engineering. Springer-Verlag.

Mich, L., Franch, M., & Gaio, L. (2003). Evaluating and Designing Web Site Quality. IEEE Multimedia,

(1), 34-43.

Montero, F., López-Jaquero, V., & Molina, J. P. (2003). Improving e-Shops Environments by Using

Usability Patterns. The 2nd Workshop on Software and Usability Cross-Pollination, Zürich, Switzerland,

September 1-2, 2003.

Offutt, J. (2002). Quality Attributes of Web Software Applications. IEEE Software, 19(2), 25-32.

Pertet, S. M., & Narasimhan, P. (2005). Causes of Failure in Web Applications. PDL Technical Report PDLCMU-

-109. Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA.

Perzel, K., & Kane, D. (1999). Usability Patterns for Applications on the World Wide Web. The 6th

Conference on Pattern Languages of Programs (PLoP 1999), Monticello, USA, August 15-18, 1999.

Paulk, M. C., Weber, C. V., Curtis, B., & Chrissis, M. B. (1995). The Capability Maturity Model: Guidelines

for Improving the Software Process. Addison-Wesley.

Rosado, D. G., Fernández-Medina, E., & Piattini, M. (2006). Comparison of Security Patterns. The

International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, 6(2B), 139-146.

Rossi, G., & Koch, N. (2002). Patterns for Adaptive Web Applications. The 7th European Conference on

Pattern Languages of Programs (EuroPLoP 2002), Irsee, Germany, July 3-7, 2002.

Rossi, G., Schwabe, D., & Lyardet, F. (1999). Improving Web Information Systems with Navigational

Patterns. The 8th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW8), Toronto, Canada, May 11-14, 1999.

Schmettow, M. (2006). User Interaction Design Patterns for Information Retrieval Systems. The 11th

European Conference on Pattern Languages of Programs (EuroPLoP 2006), Irsee, Germany, July 5-9, 2006.

Schmidt, D. C., Stal, M., Rohnert, H., & Buschmann, F. (2000). Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture,

Volume 2: Patterns for Concurrent and Networked Objects. John Wiley and Sons.

Simon, H. (1996). The Sciences of the Artificial (Third Edition). The MIT Press.

Stamper, R. (1992). Signs, Organizations, Norms and Information Systems. The 3rd Australian Conference

on Information Systems, Wollongong, Australia, October 5-8, 1992.

May, D., & Taylor, P. (2003). Knowledge Management with Patterns. Communications of the ACM, 46 (7),


Tidwell, J. (2006). Designing Interfaces: Patterns for Effective Interaction Design. O’Reilly Media.

Tractinsky, N., Cokhavi, A., Kirschenbaum, M., & Sharfi, T. (2006). Evaluating the Consistency

of Immediate Aesthetic Perceptions of Web Pages. International Journal of Human-Computer

Studies, 64, 1071-1083.

Vanderdonckt, J. (1999). Development Milestones towards a Tool for Working with Guidelines, Interacting

with Computers, 12(2), 81-118.

Van Duyne, D. K., Landay, J., & Hong, J. I. (2003). The Design of Sites: Patterns, Principles, and Processes

for Crafting a Customer-Centered Web Experience. Addison-Wesley.

Van Solingen, R., & Berghout, E. (1999). The Goal/Question/Metric Method: A Practical Method for Quality

Improvement of Software Development. McGraw-Hill.

Van Welie, M., & Van Der Veer, C. (2000). A Structure for Usability Based Patterns. CHI 2000 Workshop

on Pattern Languages for Interaction Design: Building Momentum. The Hague, The Netherlands. April 2-3,

Weiss, M. (2003). Patterns for Web Applications. The 10th Conference on Pattern Languages of Programs

(PLoP 2003), Urbana, USA, September 8-12, 2003.

Wellhausen, T. (2005). User Interfaces for Searching - A Pattern Language. The 10th European Conference

on Pattern Languages of Programs (EuroPloP 2005), Irsee, Germany, July 6-10, 2005.

Wentzlaff, I., & Specker, M. (2006). Pattern Based Development of User Friendly Web Applications.

Workshop on Model-Driven Web Engineering (MDWE 2006), Palo Alto, USA, July 10, 2006.

Wong, B. (2006). Different Views of Software Quality. In: Measuring Information Systems Delivery

Quality. E. Duggan & J. Reichgelt (Eds.). Idea Group, 55-88.

Yoder, J., & Barcalow, J. (1997). Architectural Patterns for Enabling Application Security. The 4th

Conference on Pattern Languages of Programs (PLoP 1997), Monticello, USA, September 3-5, 1997.