Creating and Capturing Artificial Emotions in Autonomous Robots and Software Agents


  • Claus Hoffmann Research Group Robots and Software Agents with Emotions, Sankt Augustin, Germany
  • Pascal Linden University of Bonn, Germany
  • Maria-Esther Vidal TIB Leibnitz Information Centre for Science and Technology, Hannover Germany



Autonomous agents, artificial emotions, agent knowledge graphs.


This paper presents ARTEMIS, a control system for autonomous robots or software agents. ARTEMIS can create human-like artificial emotions during interactions with their environment. We describe the underlying mechanisms for this. The control system also captures its past artificial emotions. A specific interpretation of a knowledge graph, called an Agent Knowledge Graph, stores these artificial emotions. ARTEMIS then utilizes current and stored emotions to adapt decision making and planning processes. As proof of concept, we realize a concrete software agent based on the ARTEMIS control system. This software agent acts as a user assistant and executes their orders and instructions. The environment of this user assistant consists of several other autonomous agents that offer their services. The execution of a user’s orders requires interactions of the user assistant with these autonomous service agents. These interactions lead to the creation of artificial emotions within the user assistant. The first experiments show that it is possible to realize an autonomous user assistant with plausible artificial emotions with ARTEMIS and record these artificial emotions in its Agent Knowledge Graph. The results also show that captured emotions support successful planning and decision making in complex dynamic environments. The user assistant with emotions surpasses an emotionless version of the user assistant.


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Author Biographies

Claus Hoffmann, Research Group Robots and Software Agents with Emotions, Sankt Augustin, Germany

Claus Hoffmann is a computer scientist and has been working in research since 1984. He studied computer science with a focus on artificial intelligence. His scientific interests are decision models for complex situations, user/assistant agents, and autonomous agents with artificial motivations and emotions.

Pascal Linden, University of Bonn, Germany

Pascal Linden is a computer science student in the master’s program of the University of Bonn, Germany. The current focus of his studies is on the exploration of different aspects of intelligent systems. Besides his studies he works as a student assistant at the Fraunhofer Institute for Intelligent Analysis and Information Systems on semantic web technologies.

Maria-Esther Vidal, TIB Leibnitz Information Centre for Science and Technology, Hannover Germany

Maria-Esther Vidal is head of the Scientific Data Management research group at TIB and a member of the L3S research center at Leibniz Universität Hannover. She is also a full professor (on leave) at the Universidad Simón Bolívar (USB) Venezuela. Her research interests include data and knowledge management, knowledge representation, and the semantic web. She has published more than 170 papers on Semantic Web, databases, bioinformatics, and artificial intelligence.


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How to Cite

Hoffmann, C., Linden, P., & Vidal, M.-E. (2021). Creating and Capturing Artificial Emotions in Autonomous Robots and Software Agents. Journal of Web Engineering, 20(4), 933–970.



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