DotCHA: An Interactive 3D Text-based CAPTCHA

  • Suzi Kim School of Computing, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
  • Sunghee Choi School of Computing, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
Keywords: CAPTCHA, 3D CAPTCHA, text-based CAPTCHA, 3D typography, mental rotation, security, usability

Abstract

We introduce a new type of 3D text-based CAPTCHA, called DotCHA, which relies on human interaction and overcomes the limitations of existing 2D and 3D CAPTCHAs. DotCHA asks users to rotate a 3D text model to identify the correct letters. The 3D text model is a twisted form of sequential 3D letters around a center pivot axis, and it shows different letters depending on the rotation angle. Because each model consists of many small spheres instead of a solid letter model, DotCHA is classified as a scatter-type CAPTCHA and resists character segmentation attacks. Moreover, DotCHA is resistant to machine learning attacks because each letter is only identified in a particular direction. We demonstrate that DotCHA is resistant to existing types of attacks while maintaining usability.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Suzi Kim, School of Computing, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea

Suzi Kim received the B.S. and M.S. degree in Computer Science from Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) in 2012 and 2016. She worked for the Daewoo Shipbuilding Marine Engineering (DSME) from Jan. 2012 to Mar. 2013 and Prezi from Apr. 2013 to Aug. 2014. She is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in School of Computing at KAIST. Her research interests include computer graphics such as procedural and inverse-procedural modeling and geometry processing.

Sunghee Choi, School of Computing, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea

Sunghee Choi received the B.S. degree in computer engineering from Seoul National University in 1995, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in computer science from the University of Texas at Austin, in 1997 and 2003, respectively. She has been working as a professor in School of Computing at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) Daejeon, Korea since 2004. Her research interests include computational geometry, computer graphics and geometric problems in wireless sensor networks.

References

Nucaptcha. http://www.nucaptcha.com. Accessed: 2019-07-28.

Abbyy finereader 14. https://www.abbyy.com/en-apac/finereader/, 2014. Accessed: 2019-07-28.

Luis von Ahn, Manuel Blum, Nicholas Hopper, John Langford, and Udi Manber. The captcha project. http://www.captcha.net/captchas/gimpy/, 2000. Accessed: 2019-07-28.

Gerhard Bachfischer and Toni Robertson. From movable type to moving type-evolution in technological mediated typography. In AUC Academic and Developers Conference, 2005.

Gerhard Bachfischer, Toni Robertson, and Agnieszka Zmijewska. A moving type framework. In Proceedings of the 10th WSEAS international conference on Communications, pages 607–612. World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS), 2006.

Henry S. Baird and Terry P. Riopka. Scattertype: a reading CAPTCHA resistant to segmentation attack. In Document Recognition and Retrieval XII, San Jose, California, USA, January 16-20, 2005, Proceedings, pages 197–207, 2005.

Elie Bursztein, Jonathan Aigrain, Angelika Moscicki, and John C. Mitchell. The end is nigh: Generic solving of text-based captchas. In 8th USENIX Workshop on Offensive Technologies, WOOT ’14, San Diego, CA, USA, August 19, 2014., 2014.

John F. Canny. A computational approach to edge detection. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., 8(6):679–698, 1986.

Kumar Chellapilla and Patrice Y. Simard. Using machine learning to break visual human interaction proofs (hips). In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 17, NIPS 2004, December 13-18, 2004, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada], pages 265–272, 2004.

Monica Chew and Henry S. Baird. Baffletext: a human interactive proof. In Document Recognition and Retrieval X, Santa Clara, California, USA, January 22-23, 2003, Proceedings, pages 305–316, 2003.

Sarika Choudhary, Ritika Saroha, Yatan Dahiya, and Sachin Choudhary. understanding captcha: Text and audio based captcha with its applications. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, 3(6), 2013.

Yang-Wai Chow and Willy Susilo. Anicap: An animated 3d CAPTCHA scheme based on motion parallax. In Cryptology and Network Security - 10th International Conference, CANS 2011, Sanya, China, December 10-12, 2011. Proceedings, pages 255–271, 2011.

Mauro Conti, Claudio Guarisco, and Riccardo Spolaor. Captchastar! A novel CAPTCHA based on interactive shape discovery. In Applied Cryptography and Network Security - 14th International Conference, ACNS 2016, Guildford, UK, June 19-22, 2016. Proceedings, pages 611–628, 2016.

Rony Ferzli, Rida A. Bazzi, and Lina J. Karam. A captcha based on the human visual systems masking characteristics. In Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, ICME 2006, July 9-12 2006, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, pages 517–520, 2006.

Haichang Gao, Dan Yao, Honggang Liu, Xiyang Liu, and Liming Wang. A novel image based CAPTCHA using jigsaw puzzle. In 13th IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering, CSE 2010, Hong Kong, China, December 11-13, 2010, pages 351–356, 2010.

Philippe Golle. Machine learning attacks against the asirra CAPTCHA. In Proceedings of the 2008 ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, CCS 2008, Alexandria, Virginia, USA, October 27-31, 2008, pages 535–542, 2008.

Rich Gossweiler, Maryam Kamvar, and Shumeet Baluja. What’s up captcha?: a CAPTCHA based on image orientation. In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on World Wide Web, WWW 2009, Madrid, Spain, April 20-24, 2009, pages 841–850, 2009.

Yuki Ikeya, Masahiro Fujita, Junya Kani, Yuta Yoneyama, and Masakatsu Nishigaki. An image-based CAPTCHA using sophisticated mental rotation. In Human Aspects of Information Security, Privacy, and Trust - Second International Conference, HAS 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014. Proceedings, pages 57–68, 2014.

Montree Imsamai and Suphakant Phimoltares. 3d captcha: A next generation of the captcha. In Information Science and Applications (ICISA), 2010 International Conference on, pages 1–8. IEEE, 2010.

Ibrahim Furkan Ince, Yucel Batu Salman, Mustafa Eren Yildirim, and Tae-Cheon Yang. Execution time prediction for 3d interactive captcha by keystroke level model. In Computer Sciences and Convergence Information Technology, 2009. ICCIT’09. Fourth International Conference on, pages 1057–1061. IEEE, 2009.

Suzi Kim and Sunghee Choi. Automatic generation of 3d typography. In Special Interest Group on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques Conference, SIGGRAPH ’16, Anaheim, CA, USA, July 24-28, 2016, Posters Proceedings, pages 21:1–21:2, 2016.

Suzi Kim and Sunghee Choi. Dotcha: A 3d text-based scatter-type CAPTCHA. In Web Engineering - 19th International Conference, ICWE 2019, Daejeon, South Korea, June 11-14, 2019, Proceedings, pages 238–252, 2019.

Punam Kumari and Mansi Kapoor. Effect of random guessing attack on image based captchas: Analysis and survey. International Journal of Innovations & Advancement in Computer Science, 4, 2015.

Cristina Romero Macias and Ebroul Izquierdo. Visual word-based captcha using 3d characters. pages 1–5, 2009.

Goran Martinovic, Andrew Attard, and Zdravko Krpic. Proposing a new type of CAPTCHA: character collage. In MIPRO, 2011 Proceedings of the 34th International Convention, Opatija, Croatia, 23-27 May, 2011, pages 1447–1451, 2011.

Maryam Mehrnejad, Abbas Ghaemi Bafghi, Ahad Harati, and Ehsan Toreini. Seimcha: a new semantic image captcha using geometric transformations. The ISC International Journal of Information Security, 4(1):63–76, 2012.

J. Abbott Miller. Dimensional Typography:: Words in Space: Kiosk Report# 1. Number 1. Princeton Architectural Press, 1996.

Greg Mori and Jitendra Malik. Recognizing objects in adversarial clutter: Breaking a visual CAPTCHA. In 2003 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR 2003), 16-22 June 2003, Madison, WI, USA, pages 134–144, 2003.

S. A. N. Samarasinghe N. R. W. W. M. R. D. Wickramasingha, H. B. R. A. K. R. A. M. Keerawella and R. G. Ragel. Rotatecaptcha a novel interactive captcha design targeting mobile devices. In Industrial and Information Systems (ICIIS), 2015 IEEE 10th International Conference on, pages 49–54. IEEE, 2015.

Margarita Osadchy, Julio Hernandez-Castro, Stuart J. Gibson, Orr Dunkelman, and Daniel Perez-Cabo. No bot expects the deepcaptcha! introducing immutable adversarial examples with applications to CAPTCHA. IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2016:336, 2016.

Ayane Sano, Masahiro Fujita, and Masakatsu Nishigaki. Directcha: A proposal of spatiometric mental rotation CAPTCHA. In 14th Annual Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust, PST 2016, Auckland, New Zealand, December 12-14, 2016, pages 585–592, 2016.

Roger N. Shepard and Jacqueline Metzler. Mental rotation of three-dimensional objects. Science, 171(3972):701–703, 1971.

Shenna Shepard and Douglas Metzler. Mental rotation: effects of dimensionality of objects and type of task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 14(1):3, 1988.

Patrice Y. Simard, David Steinkraus, and John C. Platt. Best practices for convolutional neural networks applied to visual document analysis. In 7th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition (ICDAR 2003), 2-Volume Set, 3-6 August 2003, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, pages 958–962, 2003.

Suphannee Sivakorn, Iasonas Polakis, and Angelos D. Keromytis. I am robot: (deep) learning to break semantic image captchas. In IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy, EuroS&P 2016, Saarbrucken, Germany, March 21-24, 2016 ¨ , pages 388–403, 2016.

R. Smith. An overview of the tesseract OCR engine. In 9th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition (ICDAR 2007), 23-26 September, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil, pages 629–633, 2007.

Luis von Ahn, Manuel Blum, Nicholas J. Hopper, and John Langford. CAPTCHA: using hard AI problems for security. In Advances in Cryptology - EUROCRYPT 2003, International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, Warsaw, Poland, May 4-8, 2003, Proceedings, pages 294–311, 2003.

C. Winter-Hjelm, M. H. Kleming, and R. H. Bakken. An interactive 3d captcha with semantic information. In Proc. Norwegian Artificial Intelligence Symp., pages 157–160, 2009.

Jeff Yan and Ahmad Salah El Ahmad. Breaking visual captchas with naive pattern recognition algorithms. In 23rd Annual Computer Security Applications Conference (ACSAC 2007), December 10-14, 2007, Miami Beach, Florida, USA, pages 279–291, 2007.

Jeff Yan and Ahmad Salah El Ahmad. Usability of captchas or usability issues in CAPTCHA design. In Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security, SOUPS 2008, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, July 23-25, 2008, pages 44–52, 2008.

Jeff Yan and Ahmad Salah El Ahmad. CAPTCHA security: A case study. IEEE Security & Privacy, 7(4):22–28, 2009.

Qi Ye, Youbin Chen, and Bin Zhu. The robustness of a new 3d CAPTCHA. In 11th IAPR International Workshop on Document Analysis Systems, DAS 2014, Tours, France, April 7-10, 2014, pages 319–323, 2014.

Published
2020-01-23
Section
ICWE2019