Design of Compact Reconfigurable Antenna Array for WLAN Applications
Keywords:Antenna array, hybrid feed, reconfigurable, miniaturized
In this communication, a compact design of a reconfigurable antenna array operating in the band IEEE 802.11a is presented. The proposed antenna array contains four radiating elements excited by a hybrid parallel-series-feed network. The hybrid feed technique is used to avoid the main beam squint due to frequency changes compared to series and parallel array feed topologies. Each of the four radiating elements consists of straight narrow strip inductor in parallel with an interdigital capacitor. The antenna resonant frequency is electronically controlled by placing PIN diodes switches at the resonant element's inputs. The antenna permits reconfigurable switching frequency bands between 5.25 and 5.82 GHz. The results of the return loss and pattern radiation are shown. The size of the whole antenna structure is about 64 × 18 mm2 and can potentially be used in wireless systems.
A. Vijayan, L. R. KarlMarx, K. J. Jegadish Kumar, and C. C. Vimlitha, “N-shaped frequency reconfigurable antenna with auto switching unit,” Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 710-713, June 2018.
J. Jame and P. Hall, Handbook of Microstrip Antennas. Peregrinus on behalf of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1989.
F. Zurcher and E. Gardioi, Broadband Patch Antennas. Artech House, London, 1995.
G. Kumer and C. Gupta, “Broadband microstrip antennas using additional resonators gap coupled to the radiating edges,” IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 1375-1379, Dec. 1984.
K. Smith and E. Mayes, “Stacking resonators to increase the bandwidth of low-profile antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 1473-1476, Dec. 1987.
M. Pozar and B. Kaufman, “Increasing the bandwidth of a microstrip antenna by proximity coupling,” Electronics Letters, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 368-369, Apr. 1987.
Y. Li, W. Li, and Q. Ye, “A reconfigurable triplenotch-band antenna integrated with defected microstrip structure band-stop filter for ultra-wideband cognitive radio applications,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2013, pp. 1-13, May 2013.
Y. Li, W. Li, and W. Yu. “A switchable UWB slot antenna using SIS-HSIR and SIS-SIR for multimode wireless communications applications,” Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 340-351, Apr. 2012.
Y. Li, W. Li, and Q. Ye “A reconfigurable wide slot antenna integrated with sirs for UWB/multiband communication applications,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 52- 55, Jan. 2013.
Y. Tawk, J. Costantine, K. Avery, and G. Christodoulou, “Implementation of a cognitive radio front-end using rotatable controlled reconfigurable antennas,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 1773-1778, Mar. 2011.
H. Haertling, “Rainbow actuators and sensors: A new smart technology,” Proc. SPIE 3040, Smart Structures and Materials 1997: Smart Materials Technologies, San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 81-92, June 1997.
A. Bokhari, F. Zurcher, R. Mosig, and E. Gardiol, “A small microstrip patch antenna with a convenient tuning option,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 1521-1528, Nov. 1996.
J. Rainville and J. Harackewiez, “Magnetic tuning of a microstrip patch antenna fabricated on a ferrite film,” IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 483-485, Dec. 1992.
K. Mishra, S. Pattnaik, and N. Das, “Tuning of microstrip antenna on ferrite substrate,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 230-233, Feb. 1993.
H. Al-Charchafchi, and M. Frances, “Electronically tunable microstrip patch antennas,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, Atlanta, GA, USA, pp. 304-307, June 1998.
K. Guney, “Resonant frequency of a tunable rectangular microstrip patch antenna,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 581-585, Aug. 1994.
Z. Li, D. Rodrigo, L Jofre, and A. Cetiner, “A new class of antenna array with a reconfigurable element factor,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 1947-1955, Dec. 2013.
A. Byford, K. Park, P. Chahal, and J. Rothwell, “Frequency reconfigurable patch antenna array,” Electronics Letters, vol. 51, no. 21, pp. 1628-1630, Oct. 2015.
F. Huang, B. Avenhaus, and M. J. Lancaster, “Lumped-element switchable superconducting filters,” IEE Proceedings - Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 146, no. 3, pp. 229-233, June 2013.
E. Bogatin,” Design rules for microstrip capacitance,” IEEE Transactions on Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 253-259, Sep. 1988.
G. Alley, “Interdigital capacitors and their application to lumped-element microwave integrated circuits,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1028-1033, Dec. 1970.
I. Bahl, Lumped Elements for RF and Microwave Circuits. Artech House, Boston, 2003.
H. T. Su, M. J. Lancaster, F. Huang, and F. Wellhofer, “Electrically tunable superconducting quasilumped element resonator using thin-film ferroelectrics,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 155-158, Feb. 2000.
A. Abbaspour-Tamijani and K. Sarabandi “An affordable millimeter-wave beam-steerable antenna using interleaved planar subarrays,” IEEE Transactions Antennas and Propagation, vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 2193-2202, Nov. 2003.
J. R. James, P. S. Hall, and C. Wood, Microstrip Antenna: Theory and Design. Peter Peregrinus, Ltd., London, 1981.
R James, S. Hall and C. Wood, Microstrip Antenna: Theory and Design. Peter Peregrinus: London, UK, 1981.
Q. Zhu, J. Zhu, W. Lu, L. Wu, and S. Xu, “Duallinearly polarized microstrip array based on composite right/left-handed transmission line,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 1366-1369, July 2006.
S. Horng and G. Alexopoulos, “Corporate feed design for microstrip arrays,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 41, no. 14, pp. 1615-1624, Dec. 1993.
Petosa, A. Dielectric Resonator Antenna Handbook. Artech House Inc: Boston (MA), London, 2007.
J. Huang, “A parallel-series-fed microstrip array with high efficiency and low cross-polarization,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 230-233, May 1992.
C. Li and S. Ricketts, “Loss minimisation in λ/4 impedance transformers using multiple λ/4 segments,” Electronics Letters, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 274-276, Feb. 2013.
B. Mun, C. Jung, M. Park, and B. Lee, “A compact frequency-reconfigurable multiband LTE MIMO antenna for laptop applications,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 13, pp. 1389-1392, July 2014.
X. Yang, J. Lin, G. Chen, and F. Kong, “Frequency reconfigurable antenna for wireless communications using GaAs FET switch,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 14, pp. 807- 810, Dec. 2014.
H. Rajagopalan, M. Kovitz and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “MEMS reconfigurable optimized E-shaped patch antenna design for cognitive radio,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 1056-1064, Nov. 2013.