Attack Mitigation and Security for Vehicle Platoon
Keywords:Vehicle Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs), vehicle-to-vehicle communication, visible light communication (VLC), vehicular system, network security, color-shift keying (CSK)
This research entails an investigation into enhanced attack detection techniques as a security feature in vehicular platooning. The paper evaluates critical challenges in the security of Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) with a focus on vulnerabilities in vehicle platooning. We evaluate the possibilities of securing a platoon through enhanced attack detection following an inside attack while considering current communication-based approaches to vehicular platoon security that have been effective at isolating infected platoon members. This study proposes the use of color-shift keying (CSK) as a security tool for enhanced detection of an apparent platoon attack. We simulate various attack scenarios involving a vehicular platoon communicating via a VLC network and assess the degree of exposure of such networks to three types of attacks – Sybil attacks, delay attacks, and denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. We recommend the use of a light-to-frequency (LTF) converter comprising of a receiver to collect and decode transmitted symbols with regard to the frequency of transmission. Once there is a drop in the intensity of the light transmitted in the platoon, CSK is implemented to alter the intensity of the red, green, and blue (RGB) spectrum coupled with radiofrequency to ensure the security of the communication. CSK will use coded symbols to transmit the control information from the leader using a microcontroller.
S. Ucar, S. C. Ergen and O. Ozkasap, “IEEE 802.11p and Visible Light Hybrid Communication Based Secure Autonomous Platoon,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 67, no. 9, pp. 8667–8681, 2018.
T. Cevik and S. Yilmaz, “An overview of visible light communication systems,” International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 139–150, 2015.
The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration, 2016 Fatal Motor Vehicle Crashes: Overview, U.S. Department of Transportation, 2017, October.
The World Health Organization, “Road traffic injuries,” WHO, 7 February 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/road-traffic-injuries. [Accessed 27 April 2021].
S. Chen, J. Hu, Y. Shi, Y. Peng, J. Fang, R. Zhao and L. Zhao, “Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) services supported by LTE-based systems and 5G,” IEEE Communications Standards Magazine, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 70–76, 2017.
B. Han, S. Peng, C. Wu, X. Wang and B. Wang, “LoRa-based physical layer key generation for secure v2v/v2i communications,” Sensors, vol. 20, no. 3, p. 682, 2020.
F. Sakiz and S. Sen, “A survey of attacks and detection mechanisms on intelligent transportation systems: VANETs and IoV,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 61, pp. 33–50, 2017.
K. A. Rahman and K. E. Tepe, “Towards a cross-layer based MAC for smooth V2V and V2I communications for safety applications in DSRC/WAVE based systems,” in 2014 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium Proceedings, 2014, June.
S. Kim and R. Shrestha, Automotive Cyber Security: Introduction, Challenges, and Standardization, Springer Nature, 2020.
X. Liu and A. Jaekel, “Congestion control in V2V safety communication: Problem, analysis, approaches,” Electronics, vol. 8, no. 5, p. 540, 2019.
H. Hasrouny, A. E. Samhat, C. Bassil and A. Laouiti, “A security solution for V2V communication within VANETs,” in Wireless Days (WD), 2018.
H. Hasrouny, C. Bassil, A. Samhat and A. Laouiti, “Group-based authentication in V2V communications,” in Proceedings of IEEE Fifth International Conference on DICTAP, 2015.
H. Hasrouny, C. Bassil, A. Samhat and A. Laouiti, “Security Risk Analysis of a Trust model for Secure Group Leader-based communication in VANET,” in Ad-hoc Networks for Smart Cities, Springer, 2016, pp. 71–83.
H. Hasrouny, A. E. Samhat, C. Bassil and A. Laouiti, “VANET security challenges and solutions: A survey,” Vehicular Communications, vol. 7, pp. 7–20, 2017.
W. Whyte, A. Weimerskirch, V. Kumar and T. Hehn, “A security credential management system for V2V communications,” in IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference, 2013.
H. Hasrouny, A. E. Samhat, C. Bassil and A. Laouiti, “Trust Model for Group Leader Selection in VANET,” in The 4th International Conference on CSCEET, 2017, April.
S. Rehman, M. A. Khan, T. A. Zia and L. Zheng, “Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) – An Overview and Challenges,” Journal of Wireless Networking and Communications, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 29–38, 2013.
C. Smith, The car hacker’s handbook: a guide for the penetration tester, No Starch Press, 2016.
X. Lin and R. Lu, Vehicular ad hoc network security and privacy, Piscataway: IEEE Press, 2015.
J. Stapleton, Security without Obscurity: A Guide to Confidentiality, Authentication, and Integrity, CRC Press, 2014.
I. A. Sumra, I. Ahmad and H. Hasbullah, “Classes of attacks in VANET,” in 2011 Saudi International Electronics, Communications and Photonics Conference (SIECPC), 2011, April.
B. Aslam, P. Wang and C. Zou, “An economical, deployable, and secure architecture for the initial deployment stage of vehicular ad-hoc network,” in Secure System Design and Trustable Computing, C. Chang and M. Potkonjak, Eds., Springer International Publishing, 2020, pp. 487–520.
J. P. Aumasson, Serious cryptography: a practical introduction to modern encryption, No Starch Press, 2017.
Y. Zhang and G. Cao, “V-PADA: Vehicle-Platoon-Aware Data Access in VANETs,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 2326–2339, 2011.
D. Su and S. Ahn, “Autonomous platoon formation for VANET-enabled vehicles,” in 2016 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC), 2016, October.
H. Hexmoor, S. Alsamaraee and M. Almaghshi, “Blockchain for improved platoon security,” International Journal of Information, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1–6, 2018.
E. Z. Madeleine, B. Dafflon, F. Gechter and J. M. Contet, “Vehicle platoon control with multi-configuration ability,” Procedia Computer Science, vol. 9, pp. 1503–1512, 2012.
M. Amoozadeh, A. Raghuramu, C. N. Chuah, D. Ghosal, H. M. Zhang, J. Rowe and K. Levitt, “Security vulnerabilities of connected vehicle streams and their impact on cooperative driving,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 126–132, 2015.
J. Liu, D. Ma, A. Weimerskirch and H. Zhu, “Secure and safe automated vehicle platooning,” IEEE Transactions on Reliability, 2016.
A. Yasser, M. Zorkany and N. A. Kader, “VANET routing protocol for V2V implementation: A suitable solution for developing countries,” Cogent Engineering, vol. 4, no. 1, 2017.
S. Uçar, S. Ç. Ergen and Ö. Özkasap, “Visible light communication in vehicular ad-hoc networks,” in 24th Signal Processing and Communication Application Conference (SIU), 2016, May.
T. Rosenstatter and C. Englund, “Modelling the level of trust in a cooperative automated vehicle control system,” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 1237–1247, 2017.
S. Zhao, T. Zhang, N. Wu, H. Ogai and S. Tateno, “Vehicle to vehicle communication and platooning for EV with wireless sensor network,” in 54th Annual Conference of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers of Japan (SICE), 2015, July.
G. S. Ramchurn, S. Dhoundiyal, A. R. Signh and B. Maji, “Digital beamforming techniques – A comparison,” in Advances in Communication, Devices and Networking: Proceedings of ICCDN 2017, Springer, 2018, pp. 701–710.
Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Cyber Security and Mobility
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.