Inconsistencies in Darknet Researches
Keywords:Darknet, Dark web, Tor, Terminology, Review
The darknet terminology is not used consistently among scientific research papers. This can lead to difficulties in regards to the applicability and the significance of the results and also facilitates misinterpretation of them. As a consequence, comparisons of the different works are complicated.
In this paper, we conduct a review of previous darknet research papers in order to elaborate the distribution of the inconsistent usage of the darknet terminology. Overall, inconsistencies in darknet terminology in 63 out of 97 papers were observed. The most common statement indicated that the dark web is a part of the deep web. 19 papers equate the terms darknet and dark web. Others do not distinguish between dark web and deep web, or between deep web and darknet.
Mhd Wesam Al Nabki, Eduardo Fidalgo, Enrique Alegre, and Ivan de Paz. Classifying illegal activities on tor network based on web textual contents. In Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 1, Long Papers, pages 35–43, 2017.
Mhd Wesam Al-Nabki, Eduardo Fidalgo, Enrique Alegre, and Laura Fernández-Robles. Torank: Identifying the most influential suspicious domains in the tor network. Expert Systems with Applications, 123: 212–226, 2019.
Marios Anagnostopoulos, Georgios Kambourakis, Panagiotis Drakatos, Michail Karavolos, Sarantis Kotsilitis, and David KY Yau. Botnet command and control architectures revisited: Tor hidden services and fluxing. In International Conference on Web Information Systems Engineering, pages 517–527. Springer, 2017.
Georgia Avarikioti, Roman Brunner, Aggelos Kiayias, Roger Wattenhofer, and Dionysis Zindros. Structure and content of the visible darknet. arXiv preprint arXiv:1811.01348, 2018.
Andres Baravalle and Sin Wee Lee. Dark web markets: turning the lights on alphabay. In International Conference on Web Information Systems Engineering, pages 502–514. Springer, 2018.
Frederick Barr-Smith and Joss Wright. Phishing with a darknet: Imitation of onion services. In 2020 APWG Symposium on Electronic Crime Research (eCrime), pages 1–13, 2020.
Dario Adriano Bermudez Villalva, Jeremiah Onaolapo, Gianluca Stringhini, and Mirco Musolesi. Under and over the surface: a comparison of the use of leaked account credentials in the dark and surface web. Crime Science, 7(1):1–11, 2018.
Massimo Bernaschi, Alessandro Celestini, Stefano Guarino, and Flavio Lombardi. Exploring and analyzing the tor hidden services graph. ACM Transactions on the Web (TWEB), 11(4):1–26, 2017.
Venkataraman Bhaskar, Robin Linacre, and Stephen Machin. The economic functioning of online drugs markets. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 159:426–441, 2019.
Peter Biddle, Paul England, Marcus Peinado, Bryan Willman, et al. The darknet and the future of content distribution. In ACM Workshop on digital rights management, volume 6, page 54, 2002.
Alex Biryukov, Ivan Pustogarov, Fabrice Thill, and Ralf-Philipp Weinmann. Content and popularity analysis of tor hidden services. In 2014 IEEE 34th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCSW), pages 188–193. IEEE, 2014.
Alex Biryukov, Ivan Pustogarov, and Ralf-Philipp Weinmann. Trawling for tor hidden services: Detection, measurement, deanonymization. In 2013 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pages 80–94. IEEE, 2013.
Bruno Requião da Cunha, Pádraig MacCarron, Jean Fernando Passold, Luiz Walmocyr dos Santos, Kleber A Oliveira, and James P Gleeson. Assessing police topological efficiency in a major sting operation on the dark web. Scientific reports, 10(1):1–10, 2020.
Mohd Faizan and Raees Ahmad Khan. Exploring and analyzing the dark web: A new alchemy. First Monday, 2019.
Mohd Faizan, Raees Ahmad Khan, and Alka Agrawal. Ranking potentially harmful tor hidden services: Illicit drugs perspective. Applied Computing and Informatics, 2020.
Nicolas Ferry, Thomas Hackenheimer, Francine Herrmann, and Alexandre Tourette. Methodology of dark web monitoring. In 2019 11th International Conference on Electronics, Computers and Artificial Intelligence (ECAI), pages 1–7. IEEE, 2019.
Robert W Gehl. Power/freedom on the dark web: A digital ethnography of the dark web social network. new media & society, 18(7):1219–1235, 2016.
Clement Guitton. A review of the available content on tor hidden services: The case against further development. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(6):2805–2815, 2013.
Hardik Gulati, Aman Saxena, Neerav Pawar, Poonam Tanwar, and Shweta Sharma. Dark web in modern world theoretical perspective: A survey. In 2022 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI), pages 1–10. IEEE, 2022.
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Masayuki Hatta. Deep web, dark web, dark net a taxonomy of “hidden” internet. Annals of Business Administrative Science, page 0200908a, 2020.
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Dimitrios Kavallieros, Dimitrios Myttas, Emmanouil Kermitsis, Euthimios Lissaris, Georgios Giataganas, and Eleni Darra. Understanding the dark web. In Dark Web Investigation, pages 3–26. Springer, 2021.
Robert Koch. Hidden in the shadow: The dark web-a growing risk for military operations? In 2019 11th International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon), volume 900, pages 1–24. IEEE, 2019.
Denis Korolev, Alexey Frolov, and Irina Babalova. Classification of websites based on the content and features of sites in onion space. In 2020 IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EIConRus), pages 1680–1683. IEEE, 2020.
Massimo La Morgia, Alessandro Mei, Simone Raponi, and Julinda Stefa. Time-zone geolocation of crowds in the dark web. In 2018 IEEE 38th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), pages 445–455. IEEE, 2018.
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Sergio Mauricio Martínez Monterrubio, Joseph Eduardo Armas Naranjo, Lorena Isabel Barona López, and Ángel Leonardo Valdivieso Caraguay. Black widow crawler for tor network to search for criminal patterns. In 2021 Second International Conference on Information Systems and Software Technologies (ICI2ST), pages 108–113. IEEE, 2021.
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Martin Steinebach, Marcel Schäfer, Alexander Karakuz, Katharina Brandl, and York Yannikos. Detection and analysis of tor onion services. In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, pages 1–10, 2019.
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Madeleine van der Bruggen and Arjan Blokland. Profiling darkweb child sexual exploitation material forum members using longitudinal posting history data. Social Science Computer Review, 40(4):865–891, 2022.
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