Analyzing SNOW and ZUC Security Algorithms Using NIST SP 800-22 and Enhancing their Randomness

  • Zakaria Hassan Abdelwahab Communications Engineering Department, Higher Technological Institute, Ramadan city, Egypt https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7625-5400
  • Talaat A. Elgarf Communications Engineering Department, Higher Technological Institute, Ramadan city, Egypt https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7143-5605
  • Abdelhalim Zekry Communications Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Keywords: Mobile security, 4G, 5G, Stream cipher, SNOW algorithm, ZUC algorithm, NIST SP 800-22 statistical analysis test

Abstract

Confidentiality and Integrity algorithms are based on SNOW / ZUC stream cipher algorithms. These standardized algorithms are designed by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for advanced mobile communication systems (4G-LTE Advanced, LTE Advanced Pro, and 5G-Next Generation).  In this paper, twenty configurations of SNOW/ZUC algorithms are studied and analyzed to select the one with the best randomness properties. Each configuration has two different S-boxes in the Finite State Machine (FSM) layer of the SNOW algorithm and Nonlinear Function (NLF) layer of the ZUC algorithm. The two S-boxes are selected from the best five S-boxes published in kinds of literature (Rijndael, Dickson, Feistel structure, New Rijndael, and Improved New Rijndael S-boxes). The NIST SP 800-22 statistical test suite involves 15 tests that are used to assess the randomness properties of each configuration. A complete simulation of each configuration SNOW/ZUC with two different S-boxes is applied using C- language. Test results showed that the best pair arrangement of S-boxes in the SNOW algorithm is the configuration (Feistel structure - Rijndael S-boxes) although the standard configuration by 3GPP is (Rijndael - Dickson S-boxes). Also, the best configuration in the ZUC algorithm is (New Rijndael - Rijndael S-boxes) although the standard configuration by 3GPP is (Feistel structure - New Rijndael S-boxes). The best configurations passed all the NIST SP 800-22 suite randomness tests successfully.

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Author Biographies

Zakaria Hassan Abdelwahab, Communications Engineering Department, Higher Technological Institute, Ramadan city, Egypt

Zakaria Hassan Abdelwahab was born in Ismailia, Egypt, in 1987. He received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the Higher Technological Institute (HTI), Tenth of Ramadan City, Egypt, in 2009, the M.S. degree in electrical engineering (electronics and communications engineering dept.) from the faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, in 2014 and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering (electronics and communications) at the faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Egypt in 2020. In 2009, Zakaria joined the department of electrical engineering, HTI, as a teaching assistant and he is a member of the Egyptian engineering syndicate since 2009. His main areas of research interest are security telecommunications and network security.

Talaat A. Elgarf, Communications Engineering Department, Higher Technological Institute, Ramadan city, Egypt

Talaat A. Elgarf was born in Telwana-Menofia, Egypt, in 1953. He received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering (communications), from the Military Technical College, Cairo, Egypt, in 1976, the M.S. degree in electrical engineering from the faculty of Engineering (electronics and communications), Ain Shams University, Egypt, in 1990 and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering (electronics and communications) from the faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Egypt, in 1993. He is currently visiting professor, Military Technical College, faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, and professor of communications, Higher Technological Institute (HTI), Tenth of Ramadan City, Egypt, since 2005.

Abdelhalim Zekry, Communications Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Abdelhalim Zekry is a professor of electronics and communications at the faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. He worked as a staff member in several universities. He published more than 240 conference and periodical papers. He also supervised more than 110 Master thesis and 30 Doctorate thesis in the area of electronics and electronics for communications as well as photovoltaics. Prof. Zekry focuses his research programs on the field of microelectronics and electronic applications including communications and photovoltaics.

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Published
2021-02-09
Section
Articles