Inter-PLMN Mobility Management Challenges for Supporting Cross-Border Connected and Automated Mobility (CAM) Over 5G


  • Konstantinos Trichias Wings ICT Solutions, Greece and National Technical University of Athens, Greece
  • Panagiotis Demestichas Wings ICT Solutions, Greece and University of Piraeus, Greece
  • Nikolaos Mitrou National Technical University of Athens, Greece



5G, Connected and Automated Mobility (CAM), Mobility Management (MM), inter-PLMN HO, Cross-border challenges


As the first 5G networks are being deployed across the world, new services enabled by the superior performance of 5G in terms of throughput, latency and reliability are emerging. Connected and Automated Mobility (CAM) services are perhaps among the most demanding applications that 5G networks will have to support and their deployment, performance and potential for improvement has been well investigated over the past few years. However, CAM operation in multi-operator environments and the inevitable inter-PLMN handover caused by the inherent mobility of CAM services have not been studied in length. Moreover, the multiple domains, multi-vendor components and inherent high mobility of the cross-border vehicular environment, introduce multiple challenges in terms of network management and dynamic slicing, making Zero-touch network and Service Management (ZSM) solutions an attractive alternative for these environments. The work presented in this study attempts to analyse the requirements for cross-border CAM operation for the five main CAM use cases selected by 3GPP, based on input from key European stakeholders (Network Operators, vendors, Automotive Manufacturers etc.). A detailed analysis and categorization into four categories of the main challenges for cross-border CAM service provisioning is performed, namely Telecommunication, Application, Security/Privacy and Regulatory issues, while potential solutions based on existing and upcoming technological enablers are discussed for each of them. The role of standardization and relevant regulatory and administrative bodies is analysed, leading to insights regarding the most promising future research directions in the field of cross-border CAM services.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Konstantinos Trichias, Wings ICT Solutions, Greece and National Technical University of Athens, Greece

Konstantinos Trichias M.Sc. (male) received a Dipl.-Ing degree in Electrical & Computer Engineering from the University of Patras, Greece, and his M.Sc. degree in Electrical/Telecommunications Engineering from the University of Twente, The Netherlands. He specializes on next-generation heterogeneous wireless and mobile networks, as well as the integration and smooth interoperability of the aforementioned technologies with novel networking paradigms such as SDN, ITS/V2X and IoT, targeting the successful integration of multiple vertical industries (smart cities/industry 4.0, automotive, etc.) into the 5G ecosystem. He has participated in several (inter)national research and industry consultancy projects from multiple positions (PM, TM, QM), and is currently serving as the Technical Coordinator of the H2020-ICT-18-2018 5G MOBIX and as Project Coordinator of the H2020-ICT-41-2020 VITAL-5G projects. He has served as a 3GPP RAN1 & RAN2 delegate on behalf of KPN/TNO and has numerous patent applications in the area of Radio Access systems.

Panagiotis Demestichas, Wings ICT Solutions, Greece and University of Piraeus, Greece

Panagiotis Demestichas is a Professor at the University of Piraeus, School of ICT, Department of Digital Systems, Greece. He is also a co-owner of WINGS ICT Solutions ( and of its spin-out Incelligent (, in which he focuses on the development of technologies. WINGS focuses on AI-powered solutions for the environment (air quality), networks and infrastructures (water, energy, gas, transportation, construction), production and manufacturing (food security and safety, industry 4.0, logistics), service sectors (health, defense). Incelligent focuses on products for banking, the public sector and telecommunication infrastructures. Panagiotis conducts research on 5G, cloud and IoT, big data and artificial intelligence, orchestration/diagnostics and intent-oriented mechanisms. He holds a Diploma and a Ph.D. degree on Electrical Engineering from the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). He holds patents, has published numerous articles and research papers, and is a member of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and a Senior Member of IEEE.

Nikolaos Mitrou, National Technical University of Athens, Greece

Nikola(o)s Mitrou received his diploma degree in Electrical Engineering (1980) from the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), the MSc degree in Systems and Control (1981) from UMIST, Great Britain, and the PhD degree in Electrical & Computer Engineering (1986) from NTUA. He is a full Professor with the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at NTUA since 2000. He has been the leader and/or prime researcher of many European and national projects in the fields of Broadband Telecommunications, Mobile and Multimedia Communications, Knowledge Representation & Management and has published numerous articles and conference papers in these fields.


5G for Europe Action Plan:

Comparing The Cost Of Commuting Across Each European Capital City,

World Trade Statistical Report 2018,

Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) core corridors:

Proposal for a REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL establishing the Connecting Europe Facility and repealing Regulations (EU) No 1316/2013 and (EU) No 283/2014,

3GPP TS23.501, Technical Specification “System architecture for the 5G System (5GS)”, v 16.4.0

3GPP TS23.502, Technical Specification “Procedures for the 5G System (5GS)”, v 16.4.0

3GPP TR22.886, Technical Report, “Study on enhancement of 3GPP Support for 5G V2X Services”, v.15.3.0

H2020 ICT-18-2018 5G-MOBIX project:

H2020 ICT-18-2018 5G-CARMEN project:

H2020 ICT-18-2018 5G-CROCO project:

3GPP TS22.186, Technical Specification, “Enhancement of 3GPP support for V2X scenarios; Stage 1”, v16.2.0, June 2019

5G-MOBIX Deliverable D2.1, “5G-enabled CCAM use cases specification”, October 2019,

5G-CARMEN Deliverable D2.1, “5G-CARMEN Use Cases and Requirements”, May 2019,

5G-CROCO Deliverable D2.1, “Test Case Definition and Trial Site Description – Part 1”, January 2020,

5G-MOBIX Deliverable D2.5, “Initial Evaluation KPIs and Metrics”, October 2019,

V. V. Paranthaman, Y. Kirsal, G. Mapp, P. Shah and H. X. Nguyen, “Exploring a New Proactive Algorithm for Resource Management and Its Application to Wireless Mobile Environments,” 2017 IEEE 42nd Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN), Singapore, 2017, pp. 539–542, doi: 10.1109/LCN.2017.86.

Campolo, Claudia et al. “Slicing on the Road: Enabling the Automotive Vertical through 5G Network Softwarization.” Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) vol. 18,12 4435. 14 Dec. 2018, doi:10.3390/s18124435

F. Romeo, C. Campolo, A. Molinaro and A. O. Berthet, “DENM Repetitions to Enhance Reliability of the Autonomous Mode in NR V2X Sidelink,” 2020 IEEE 91st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2020-Spring), Antwerp, Belgium, 2020, pp. 1–5, doi: 10.1109/VTC2020-Spring48590.2020.9129367.

H. Park, Y. Lee, T. Kim, B. Kim and J. Lee, “Handover Mechanism in NR for Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communications,” in IEEE Network, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 41–47, March–April 2018, doi: 10.1109/MNET.2018.1700235

N. Kumar, S. Kumar and K. Subramaniam, “Achieving Zero ms Handover Interruption in New Radio with Higher Throughput Using D2D Communication,” 2019 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), Marrakesh, Morocco, 2019, pp. 1–8, doi: 10.1109/WCNC.2019.8885705.

GSMA, Official Document NG.113 - 5G Roaming Guidelines, v2.0, May 2020,

3GPP TS29.573, Technical Specification, “5G System; Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) Interconnection”, v16.3.0, July 2020.

H2020 5G-DRIVE project, “5G Harmonised Research and Trials for Service Evolution”,

5G-MOBIX Deliverable D2.2, “5G architecture and technologies for CCAM specifications”, October 2019,






Special Issue on Zero-touch Network and Service Automation (ZSM)