A Secure Trust-aware Cross-layer Routing Protocol for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks


  • Sihem Baccari Hatem Bettahar IResCoMath Research Unit, Tunisia
  • Mohamed Hadded Institut VEDECOM, 23 bis Allee des Marronnie, 78000 Versailles, France https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2294-2237
  • Haifa Touati Hatem Bettahar IResCoMath Research Unit, Tunisia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8391-3061
  • Paul Muhlethaler INRIA Paris, 2 Rue Simone IFF, 75012 Paris, France




VANET, cross-layer routing, security, trust, black hole attack, gray hole attack, MAC attacks


VANETs currently represent one of the most prominent solutions that aim to reduce the number of road accident victims and congestion problems while improving the quality of driving. VANETs form a very dynamic open network in which vehicles exchange information and warnings about road situations and other traffic information through several routing protocols, without any intermediate control. However, the absence of a central control makes such a network vulnerable to several types of attack, not only from the outside but also, and mostly, from the interior. This makes their detection by classical security techniques more difficult and requires the development of new techniques to control the information circulating in the network. In this context, a proposed routing protocol called TDMA-aware Routing Protocol for Multi hop communication in Vehicular networks, is vulnerable to security threats, such as Black Hole and Gray Hole attacks, as well as MAC attacks such as Denial of Service (DoS), which lead to a considerable deterioration in the network’s performance in terms of packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delays, channel access rate, etc. To mitigate the effect of those attacks, we propose a trust-based model in which each node will establish a trust relationship with its neighbors based on their behaviors during the channel access and packet forwarding process. The simulation results show a significant decrease in the effect of attacks on the performance of the TRPM protocol.


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Author Biographies

Sihem Baccari, Hatem Bettahar IResCoMath Research Unit, Tunisia

Sihem Baccari was born in July 1996 in Tunisia. She obtained her baccalaureate degree in 2015 in the field of technical sciences. She continued her high education at the Faculty of Sciences of Gabes, Tunisia, where she obtained a fundamental license in computer sciences in 2018 and the Research Master’s degree in computer sciences and networks in december 2020. Her research work focuses on routing protocols security within the vehicular networks. In a first published work at SoftCom2020 conference, she worked on the impact of security attacks on the capacities of cross-layer routing protocols.

Mohamed Hadded, Institut VEDECOM, 23 bis Allee des Marronnie, 78000 Versailles, France

Mohamed Hadded earned his Ph.D. degree in telecommunication systems from Telecom Sud in Paris. He continued his research activities as an R&D cybersecurity engineer. His current activities include research projects on cybersecurity for connected vehicles. His research interests include vehicular networks, cybersecurity, UAVs, game theory and machine learning. His published work has appeared in major journals like IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials and in IEEE conferences. He has authored and co-authored more than 30 international publications related to V2X and cybersecurity.

Haifa Touati, Hatem Bettahar IResCoMath Research Unit, Tunisia

Haifa Touati received her PhD degree in computer science at the National School of Computer Science, University of Manouba, Tunisia in 2011. Previously, she earned her engineering and master degrees in networking at the National School of Computer Science, Tunisia. Since 2004, she holds the position of lecturer then assistant professor at the Faculty of Science de Gabes in Tunisia. She was the supervisor of the Master’s degree program in Computer Science and Networks. Her research focuses on several issues related to Named Data Networking and wireless communications (WSN, VANET, UAVs communications) mainly routing protocols design, networks modeling and performances, congestion control and energy conservation.

Paul Muhlethaler, INRIA Paris, 2 Rue Simone IFF, 75012 Paris, France

Paul Muhlethaler, was born in February 1961. He received the degree from the École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, in 1984 and the Ph.D. and habilitation degrees from Paris Dauphine University, Paris, France, in 1989 and 1998, respectively.

He has been a Researcher at the Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique (INRIA), Le Chesnay, France, since 1988 and is now a Research Director at INRIA, where he co-founded the HiPERCOM Team with Philippe Jacquet. His research topics are mainly around protocols for networks with a specialty in wireless networks. He had also a few, often referenced, results on scheduling issues. In wireless networks, he has actively worked at ETSI and IETF for the HiPERLAN and OLSR standards. He is now following the European standardization for vehicular networks. Another important aspect of his activity concerns models and performance evaluations. He was the first to carry out optimizations of CSMA protocols in multihop ad hoc networks. With F. Baccelli and B. Blaszczyszyn, he derived a complete model of an Aloha multihop ad hoc network. Interestingly, this model led to the design of one of the first multihop ad hoc networks offering a throughput scaling according to the Guta and Kumar’s famous law. He is now particularly interested in understanding the achievable performance of multihop ad hoc networks and in tracking all the possible optimization ways of such networks. He was among the First contributors for the OLSR protocol in 1997. Dr. Muhlethaler was a recipient of the prestigious price “Science et Defense” for his work on mobile ad hoc networks in 2004.


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How to Cite

Baccari S, Hadded M, Touati H, Muhlethaler P. A Secure Trust-aware Cross-layer Routing Protocol for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks. JCSANDM [Internet]. 2021 Apr. 8 [cited 2023 May 31];10(2):377–402. Available from: https://journals.riverpublishers.com/index.php/JCSANDM/article/view/5143



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