B-Spot: Blockchain and Steganography based Robust and Secure Photo Transmission Mechanism

Authors

  • Dongchi Li University of Nottingham Ningbo China, 199 Taikang East Road, Ningbo 315100, China
  • Pushpendu Kar University of Nottingham Ningbo China, 199 Taikang East Road, Ningbo 315100, China

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.13052/jmm1550-4646.18610

Keywords:

Blockchain, steganography, robustness, security, photo transmission mechanism, verification, recovery

Abstract

In this paper, a Steganography and Blockchain based robust and secure photo transmission mechanism, named B-Spot, is proposed. At the sender side, firstly, a 3-3-2 LSB image steganography algorithm is used to hide a secret photo into a cover photo. Therefore, the existence of the secret photo is concealed. Then the stego-image is broken down into pixels and embedded into blocks. Blocks are connected by the hash values forming a blockchain. Any modifications on the blocks are reflected by the breakage of the chain, which makes the mechanism tamper-evident. Another copy of the blockchain is stored in a hash table for the latter recovery process. The blockchain and the hash table can be transmitted via any network. When the receiver receives the data, it firstly executes the verification process to check integrity of the blockchain. Then the lost and tampered blocks are recovered by referring to the hash table, which makes the mechanism more robust to noises. Finally, the stego-image is reconstructed from the recovered blockchain. Then the receiver can obtain the secret photo following the extraction algorithm. The simulation results show that the proposed mechanism has high data capacity, better imperceptibility, reasonable computing time, and strong robustness to noise. This mechanism adds an extra layer of security and robustness to the existing schemes.

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Author Biographies

Dongchi Li, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, 199 Taikang East Road, Ningbo 315100, China

Dongchi Li is an MSc Computing (Software Engineering) student at Imperial College London. He is currently working on his Master Individual Project of Java Migration of MATLAB Line Library. He received a BSc Computer Science degree with first class from University of Nottingham, Ningbo, China in 2021. He is interested in software engineering, blockchain and distributed systems.

Pushpendu Kar, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, 199 Taikang East Road, Ningbo 315100, China

Pushpendu Kar received all this Bachelor, Master, and PhD in Computer Science and Engineering. He is currently working as an Assistant Professor with the School of Computer Science, University of Nottingham, Ningbo, China. Prior to this, he was a Research Fellow with the Department of ICT and Natural Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway. He was also a Postdoctoral Research Fellow with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, and the Energy Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. His research interests include mobile ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks, the Internet of Things, and content-centric networking. He was a recipient of the Erasmus Mundus Postdoctoral Fellowship of the European Commission, the ERCIM Alain Bensoussan Fellowship of the European Union, and the SERB OPD Fellowship of the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India. He received the 2020 IEEE Systems Journal Best Paper Award.

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Published

2022-07-18

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Articles