B-Spot: Blockchain and Steganography based Robust and Secure Photo Transmission Mechanism


  • Dongchi Li University of Nottingham Ningbo China, 199 Taikang East Road, Ningbo 315100, China
  • Pushpendu Kar University of Nottingham Ningbo China, 199 Taikang East Road, Ningbo 315100, China




Blockchain, steganography, robustness, security, photo transmission mechanism, verification, recovery


In this paper, a Steganography and Blockchain based robust and secure photo transmission mechanism, named B-Spot, is proposed. At the sender side, firstly, a 3-3-2 LSB image steganography algorithm is used to hide a secret photo into a cover photo. Therefore, the existence of the secret photo is concealed. Then the stego-image is broken down into pixels and embedded into blocks. Blocks are connected by the hash values forming a blockchain. Any modifications on the blocks are reflected by the breakage of the chain, which makes the mechanism tamper-evident. Another copy of the blockchain is stored in a hash table for the latter recovery process. The blockchain and the hash table can be transmitted via any network. When the receiver receives the data, it firstly executes the verification process to check integrity of the blockchain. Then the lost and tampered blocks are recovered by referring to the hash table, which makes the mechanism more robust to noises. Finally, the stego-image is reconstructed from the recovered blockchain. Then the receiver can obtain the secret photo following the extraction algorithm. The simulation results show that the proposed mechanism has high data capacity, better imperceptibility, reasonable computing time, and strong robustness to noise. This mechanism adds an extra layer of security and robustness to the existing schemes.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Dongchi Li, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, 199 Taikang East Road, Ningbo 315100, China

Dongchi Li is an MSc Computing (Software Engineering) student at Imperial College London. He is currently working on his Master Individual Project of Java Migration of MATLAB Line Library. He received a BSc Computer Science degree with first class from University of Nottingham, Ningbo, China in 2021. He is interested in software engineering, blockchain and distributed systems.

Pushpendu Kar, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, 199 Taikang East Road, Ningbo 315100, China

Pushpendu Kar received all this Bachelor, Master, and PhD in Computer Science and Engineering. He is currently working as an Assistant Professor with the School of Computer Science, University of Nottingham, Ningbo, China. Prior to this, he was a Research Fellow with the Department of ICT and Natural Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway. He was also a Postdoctoral Research Fellow with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, and the Energy Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. His research interests include mobile ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks, the Internet of Things, and content-centric networking. He was a recipient of the Erasmus Mundus Postdoctoral Fellowship of the European Commission, the ERCIM Alain Bensoussan Fellowship of the European Union, and the SERB OPD Fellowship of the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India. He received the 2020 IEEE Systems Journal Best Paper Award.


Shahzad Alam, Tanvir Ahmad, and Mohammad Najmud Doja. A novel edge based chaotic steganography method using neural network. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Frontiers in Intelligent Computing: Theory and Applications, pages 467–475. Springer, 2017.

Dalel Bouslimi, Gouenou Coatrieux, Michel Cozic, and Christian Roux. A joint encryption/watermarking system for verifying the reliability of medical images. IEEE transactions on information technology in biomedicine, 16(5):891–899, 2012.

Sammi Caramela. 8 tech security tips for creating a safe home office.

Xiuli Chai, Zhihua Gan, Yiran Chen, and Yushu Zhang. A visually secure image encryption scheme based on compressive sensing. Signal Processing, 134:35–51, 2017.

Xiuli Chai, Zhihua Gan, Kang Yang, Yiran Chen, and Xianxing Liu. An image encryption algorithm based on the memristive hyperchaotic system, cellular automata and dna sequence operations. Signal Processing: Image Communication, 52:6–19, 2017.

University of Wisconsin Computer Aided Engineering. Test images.

H Dadgostar and Fatemeh Afsari. Image steganography based on interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy edge detection and modified lsb. Journal of information security and applications, 30:94–104, 2016.

Kousik Dasgupta, JK Mandal, and Paramartha Dutta. Hash based least significant bit technique for video steganography (hlsb). International Journal of Security, Privacy and Trust Management (IJSPTM), 1(2): 1–11, 2012.

Mehdi Hussain and Mureed Hussain. A survey of image steganography techniques. 2013.

Mehdi Hussain, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab, Yamani Idna Bin Idris, Anthony TS Ho, and Ki-Hyun Jung. Image steganography in spatial domain: A survey. Signal Processing: Image Communication, 65:46–66, 2018.

Joseph Johnson. U.s. data breaches and exposed records 2020 | statista.

Neil F Johnson and Sushil Jajodia. Exploring steganography: Seeing the unseen. Computer, 31(2):26–34, 1998.

Inas Jawad Kadhim, Prashan Premaratne, Peter James Vial, and Brendan Halloran. Comprehensive survey of image steganography: Techniques, evaluations, and trends in future research. Neurocomputing, 335: 299–326, 2019.

Manashee Kalita and Themrichon Tuithung. A novel steganographic method using 8-neighboring pvd (8npvd) and lsb substitution. In 2016 International Conference on Systems, Signals and Image Processing (IWSSIP), pages 1–5. IEEE, 2016.

Vijay Kumar and Dinesh Kumar. Performance evaluation of modified color image steganography using discrete wavelet transform. Journal of Intelligent Systems, 28(5):749–758, 2019.

Chunhu Li, Guangchun Luo, Ke Qin, and Chunbao Li. An image encryption scheme based on chaotic tent map. Nonlinear Dynamics, 87(1):127–133, 2017.

Khan Muhammad, Jamil Ahmad, Naeem Ur Rehman, Zahoor Jan, and Muhammad Sajjad. Cisska-lsb: color image steganography using stego key-directed adaptive lsb substitution method. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 76(6):8597–8626, 2017.

Tuan Duc Nguyen, Somjit Arch-Int, and Ngamnij Arch-Int. An adaptive multi bit-plane image steganography using block data-hiding. Multimedia tools and applications, 75(14):8319–8345, 2016.

NIST. Nist brief comments on recent cryptanalytic attacks on secure hashing functions and continued security provided by sha-1, 2004.

Jakub Oravec, Jan Turan, Lubos Ovseník, Tomas Ivaniga, David Solus, and Michal Marton. Asymmetric image encryption approach with plaintext-related diffusion. Radioengineering, 27(1):281–288, 2018.

Shiv Prasad and Arup Kumar Pal. An rgb colour image steganography scheme using overlapping block-based pixel-value differencing. Royal Society open science, 4(4):161066, 2017.

Sujarani Rajendran and Manivannan Doraipandian. Chaotic map based random image steganography using lsb technique. IJ Network Security, 19(4):593–598, 2017.

Swati Sahute, Priyankaand Waghamare, Supriya Patil, and Ashwini Diwate. Secure messaging using image stegnography. International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research, 2(3):598–608, 2015.

Marwa Saidi, Houcemeddine Hermassi, Rhouma Rhouma, and Safya Belghith. A new adaptive image steganography scheme based on dct and chaotic map. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 76(11):13493–13510, 2017.

Alan T Sherman, Farid Javani, Haibin Zhang, and Enis Golaszewski. On the origins and variations of blockchain technologies. IEEE Security & Privacy, 17(1):72–77, 2019.

Amandeep Singh, Praveen Agarwal, and Mehar Chand. Image encryption and analysis using dynamic aes. In 2019 5th International Conference on Optimization and Applications (ICOA), pages 1–6. IEEE, 2019.

Ali Soleymani, Zulkarnain Md Ali, and Md Jan Nordin. A survey on principal aspects of secure image transmission. In Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, volume 66. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2012.

Gandharba Swain. Adaptive pixel value differencing steganography using both vertical and horizontal edges. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 75(21):13541–13556, 2016.

Zhenjun Tang, Xianquan Zhang, and Weiwei Lan. Efficient image encryption with block shuffling and chaotic map. Multimedia tools and applications, 74(15):5429–5448, 2015.

Christian J Van den Branden Lambrecht and Olivier Verscheure. Perceptual quality measure using a spatiotemporal model of the human visual system. In Digital Video Compression: Algorithms and Technologies 1996, volume 2668, pages 450–461. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 1996.

Zhou Wang, Alan C Bovik, Hamid R Sheikh, and Eero P Simoncelli. Image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity. IEEE transactions on image processing, 13(4):600–612, 2004.

Xiangjun Wu, Chenxi Bai, and Haibin Kan. A new color image cryptosystem via hyperchaos synchronization. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, 19(6):1884–1897, 2014.

Karl Wüst and Arthur Gervais. Do you need a blockchain? In 2018 Crypto Valley Conference on Blockchain Technology (CVCBT), pages 45–54. IEEE, 2018.

Ching-Yu Yang and Wen-Fong Wang. Block-based colour image steganography using smart pixel-adjustment. In Genetic and Evolutionary Computing, pages 145–154. Springer, 2015.