Improved Next-Generation Radio Access Networks Using a Centralized Opto-Electronic Oscillator

Authors

  • Mehmet Alp Ilgaz Trzaska cesta 25, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5695-6464
  • Kristjan Vuk Baliž Trzaska cesta 25, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Boštjan Batagelj Trzaska cesta 25, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.13052/jmm1550-4646.1855

Keywords:

optoelectronic oscillator, chromatic dispersion, front haul, phase noise, 5G radio access network, radio-over-fibre, wideband opto-electronic oscillator, integrated microwave photonics

Abstract

Next-generation 5G and 6G radio access networks (RANs) require millimetre-wave (mm-W) oscillators to generate extremely low phase-noise signals for the frequency up-conversion and down-conversion in radio units (RUs). The opto-electronic oscillator (OEO) is an outstanding candidate for generating a high-purity mm-W signal in a centralized radio access network (C-RAN) where the distributed base-stations are dislocated from the digital units (DUs) and there are only RUs on the remote side. In this paper we propose placing an OEO in the central-office, while distributing its signal from there to multiple RU base-stations through the mobile front-haul network using a radio-over-fibre (RoF) transmission approach. This new approach was used in experiments that proved the smaller degradation of the phase noise compared to a degradation of 6 dB for the well-known frequency-doubling electrical oscillator in the RU. In addition, we present the signal-strength degradation due to fibre dispersion in mm-W signal distribution, as well as the challenges in long-term stability and multimode operation. We propose solutions to overcome these drawbacks and make our new approach useful for a centralized carrier signal distribution in next-generation RANs.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Mehmet Alp Ilgaz, Trzaska cesta 25, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

Mehmet Alp Ilgaz received a bachelor degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from Yeditepe University in 2012 and a master’s degree in Electronics Engineering at the University of Bologna in 2015. He received his PhD from the University of Ljubljana in 2020 for Opto-electronic Oscillators in Radio Access Networks. His research interests include radio-frequency communications, opto-electronics, and integrated optics.

Kristjan Vuk Baliž, Trzaska cesta 25, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

Kristjan Vuk Baliž received his master’s degree from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, in 2019. He is currently employed as an assistant teacher at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering in Ljubljana. His research interests include microwave photonics, electromagnetic radiation and wave propagation in telecommunications and numerical analysis of electromagnetic phenomena inside waveguide structures.

Boštjan Batagelj, Trzaska cesta 25, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

Boštjan Batagelj received his PhD from the University of Ljubljana in 2003 for work on optical-fiber non-linearity measurements by four-wave mixing. Currently, he is an associate professor at the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and a member of the international organizations IEEE and OSA. As a researcher he works in the Radiation and Optics Laboratory in the Information and Communications Technology Department. His current research interests include work on the physical layer of optical transport and optical access networks, including the convergence with radio systems and components. He is named as an inventor on ten patents.

References

IMT traffic estimates for the years 2020 to 2030. ITU, Switzerland, Rep. M.2370-0, Jul., 2015. [Online]. https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-r/opb/rep/R-REP-M.2370-2015-PDF-E.pdf

Ouaissa, M., and A. Rhattoy. 2018. New Method Based on Priority of Heterogeneous Traffic for Scheduling Techniques in M2M Communications over LTE Networks. Int. J. Intell. Eng. 116:209–219.

Nidhi, A. M., and R. Prasad. 2021. Spectrum Sharing and Dynamic Spectrum Management Techniques in 5G and Beyond Networks: A Survey. J. Mob. Multimed. 17: 65–78.

Lopez, A. V., A. Chervyakov, G. Chance, S. Verma, and Y. Tang. 2019. Opportunities and Challenges of mmWave NR. IEEE Wirel. Commun. 26: 4–6.

Radio-over-fibre (RoF) technologies and their applications, ITU-T Series G: Transmission systems and media, digital systems and networks, Supplement 55, (07/2015)

Batagelj, B., L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, and S. Tomazic. 2011.Convergence of Fixed and Mobile Networks by Radio over Fibre Technology. Info. MIDEM 41: 144–149.

K. Tanaka and A. Agata, ‘Next-generation optical access networks for C-RAN’, Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), USA, pp. 1–3, Jun., 2015.

Batagelj, B., V. Janyani, and S. Tomazic. 2014. Research Challenges in Optical Communications Towards 2020 and Beyond. Infor. MIDEM 44: 177–184.

Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI); Interface Specification, CPRI Specification V7.0 (2015-10-09).

Common Public Radio Interface: eCPRI Interface Specification, eCPRI Specification V2.0 (2019-05-10).

Sadjina, S., R. S. Kanumalli, A. Gebhard, K. Dufrêne, M. Huemer, and H. Pretl. 2018. A Mixed-Signal Circuit Technique for Cancellation of Interferers Modulated by LO Phase-Noise in 4G/5G CA Transceivers. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap. 65: 3745–3755.

Ye, C., L. Zhang, M. Zhu, J. Yu, S. He, and G. Chang. 2012. A Bidirectional 60-GHz Wireless-Over-Fiber Transport System With Centralized Local Oscillator Service Delivered to Mobile Terminals and Base Stations. IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24: 1984–1987.

Z. Samoud, A. Hraghi, and M. Menif,‘A performance comparison between lumped, distributed and optical phase locked local oscillator used in the photonic generation of millimeter-wave signals for radio over fiber systems ’, Proc. SPIE 11031, Integrated Optics: Design, Devices, Systems, and Applications V, 110311A, Czech Republic, Apr., 2019.

A. Qasim, T. Mehmood, U. Ali, Q. U. Khan, and S. Ghafoor, ‘Dual-ring radio over fiber system with centralized light sources and local oscillator for millimeter-wave transmission’, International Multi-topic Conference (INMIC), pp. 1–5, Pakistan, Nov., 2017

T. Marozsak, T. Berceli, G. Jaro, A. Zolomy, A. Hilt, S. Mihaly, E. Udvary, and Z. Varga, ‘A new optical distribution approach for millimetre wave radio’, International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, pp. 63–66, USA, Aug., 1998.

M. Vidmar, ‘Noise in Radio/Optical Communications’, Proc. IBIC’18, pp. 1–5, China, Sep., 2018.

Z., Ali, F. Athley, J. Medbo, U. Gustavsson, G. Durisi, and X. Chen. 2018. Chapter 4 – Mathematical Modeling of Hardware Impairments. In 5G Physical Layer, Principles, Models and Technology Components, A. Zaidi, F. Athley, J. Medbo, U. Gustavsson, G. Durisi, and X. Chen eds. Academic Press, pp. 87–118.

Ilgaz, M. A., K.V. Baliz, and B. Batagelj. 2020. A Flexible Approach to Combating Chromatic Dispersion in a Centralized 5G Network. Opto-Electron. Rev. 28: 35–42.

Ilgaz, M. A., A. Lavric, and B. Batagelj. 2021. Phase-Noise Degradation of an Optically Distributed Local Oscillator in a Radio Access Network. Radioengineering. 30: 10–15.

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, ‘Phase noise of a high performance OEO and an ultra low noise floor cross-correlation microwave photonic homodyne system’, IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, pp. 811–814, United States of America, Sept., 2008.

Hasanuzzaman, G. K. M., S. Iezekiel, and A. Kanno. 2020. W-Band Optoelectronic Oscillator. IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 32: 771–774.

Yao, X. S. and L. Maleki. 1996. Optoelectronic microwave oscillator. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13:1725–1735.

Schmuck, H. 1995. Comparison of optical millimetre-wave system concepts with regard to chromatic dispersion. Electron. Lett. 31:1848–1849.

Smith, G. H., D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed. 1997. Overcoming chromatic-dispersion effects in fiber-wireless systems incorporating external modulators. IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45:1410–1415.

F. Falconi, C. Porzi, S. Melo, A. Nottola, S. Tirelli, G. B. Preve, M. Sorel, and A. Bogoni, ‘Wideband Single-Sideband Suppressed-Carrier Modulation with Silicon Photonics Optical Filters’, International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP), pp. 1–4, Canada, Nov., 2019.

Loayssa, A., D. Benito, and M. J. Garde. 2001. Single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation using a single-electrode electrooptic modulator. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13: 869–871.

D. Eliyahu, K. Sariri, A. Kamran, and M. Tokhmakhian, ‘Improving short and long term frequency stability of the opto-electronic oscillator’, Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition, pp. 580–583, United States of America, May, 2002.

Bogataj, L., M. Vidmar, and B. Batagelj. 2014. A Feedback Control Loop for Frequency Stabilization in an Opto-Electronic Oscillator. J. Light. Technol. 32: 3690–3694.

Bogataj, L., M. Vidmar, and B. Batagelj. 2016. Opto-Electronic Oscillator With Quality Multiplier. IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 64: 663–668.

Ilgaz, M.A., A. Lavric, T. Odedeyi, I. Darwazeh, B. Batagelj. 2020. Adjustable testing setup for a single-loop optoelectronic oscillator with an electrical bandpass filter. Turk. J. Electr. Eng. Comput. Sci. 28: 1293–1302.

J. Wo, A. Wang, J. Zhang, D. Zhang, Y. Wang, P. Du, W. Cong, and L. Yu, ‘Wideband tunable microwave generation using a dispersion compensated optoelectronic oscillator’, Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC) and Photonics Global Conference (PGC), pp. 1–2, Singapore, Aug., 2017.

Teng, C., X. Zou, P. Li, W. Pan and L. Yan. 2020. Wideband Frequency-Tunable Parity-Time Symmetric Optoelectronic Oscillator Based on Hybrid Phase and Intensity Modulations. J. Light. Technol. 38:5406–5411.

Wang, Y., X. Jin, Y. Zhu, X. Zhang, S. Zheng and H. Chi. 2015. A Wideband Tunable Optoelectronic Oscillator Based on a Spectral-Subtraction-Induced MPF. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27: 947–950.

J. Tang, T. Hao, W. Li, N. Zhu, M. Li, D. Domenech, R. Banos, P. Munoz, and J. Capmany, ‘An integrated optoelectronic oscillator’, International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP), pp. 1–4, China, Oct., 2017.

Published

2022-04-04

Issue

Section

5G and a Vision of 6G