Lightweight and Secure Authentication Model for Vehicle to Everything (V2X) Communication Based on 5G Networks


  • Meriem Houmer Higher school of technologies, Ibn Zohr University, Dakhla, Morocco
  • Safaa Laqtib Informatics and Applications Laboratory (IA), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismail University, Meknes, Morocco
  • Siham Eddamiri Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University Moulay Ismail, ENSAM, Meknes, Morocco



ITS, security, V2X, 5G, AVISPA


Integrating the cellular network infrastructure into Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) received attention from the research community and standards groups. This technology allows the invention and development of new applications, as well as the development of new vehicle mobility solutions and the enhancement of driver mobility in terms of safety, reliability, capacity, and quality. Cellular communications networks such as LTE-V2X and 5G NR, integrated into the Vehicle to Everything (V2X) architecture designed to support vehicular communications and deployed on a large scale, appear in particular to be a relevant solution. They could indeed guarantee reliable geographic distribution and acceptable performance (latency, bandwidth, packet loss). In this context, we propose a secure authentication scheme for 5G-based V2X communication. To achieve security requirements, our approach aims to provide a high degree of security in different vehicular communication (V2V, V2I, V2N) by using lightweight cryptographic algorithms in order to safely receive all keys and messages from RSU, vehicles, and the network. To validate our approach, we use the Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool to achieve the security goals, also evaluate the performance according to the operational cost which demonstrates that our model has a less computational cost.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Meriem Houmer, Higher school of technologies, Ibn Zohr University, Dakhla, Morocco

Meriem Houmer received the bachelor’s degree in System and networks from Chouaib Doukkali University in 2013, the master’s degree in information system, network and multimedia from Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University in 2015, and the philosophy of doctorate degree in computer science and networks from Moulay Ismail University in 2021, respectively. She is currently working as an Assistant Professor at Higher school of technologies, Ibn Zohr University, Dakhla, Morocco. Her research areas include routing protocols and security in vehicular ad hoc and 5G networks.

Safaa Laqtib, Informatics and Applications Laboratory (IA), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismail University, Meknes, Morocco

Safaa Laqtib received a Master’s degree in multimedia and decision-making computer systems from the Faculty of Science Dhar El Mahraz FSDM, in 2013 and 2015, respectively. Currently, she obtained a doctorate in Computer Science from the Faculty of Science Meknes. Her current research interests include mobile ad hoc networks, deep learning, machine learning, and wireless sensor networks, vehicular ad hoc networks, Cybersecurity of mobile ad hoc networks.

Siham Eddamiri, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University Moulay Ismail, ENSAM, Meknes, Morocco

Siham Eddamiri is a Researcher Associate in Computer Science at the National Higher School of Arts and Crafts (ENSAM), Moulay Ismail University (UMI), Meknes, Morocco. She is a member of the research Laboratory LM2I funded by the Industrial Engineering and Productivity Department (ENSAM). Her research focus is on the domain of white-box machine learning for critical domains and (semantic) knowledge models. Other research interests are bio-inspired algorithms and extracted knowledge from the RDF dataset in general.


G. Dimitrakopoulos, P. Demestichas, ‘Intelligent transportation systems’. IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, 5(1), 77–84, 2010.

J. Wang, Y. Shao, Y. Ge, R. Yu, ‘A survey of vehicle to everything (V2X) testing’. Sensors, 19(2), 334, 2019.

N. E. El Faouzi, H. Leung, A. Kurian, ‘Data fusion in intelligent transportation systems: Progress and challenges–A survey’. Information Fusion, 12(1), 4–10, 2011.

Kim, Dongwook, and Sungbum Kim. ‘Network slicing as enablers for 5G services: state of the art and challenges for mobile industry.’ Telecommunication Systems 71.3, 517–527, 2019.

Settembre, Marina. ‘A 5G Core Network Challenge: Combining Flexibility and Security’. In: 2021 AEIT International Annual Conference (AEIT). IEEE. pp. 1–6, 2021.

Rodriguez, Veronica Quintuna, Fabrice Guillemin, and Amina Boubendir. ‘Automating the deployment of 5G network slices using ONAP,’ 10th International Conference on Networks of the Future (NoF). IEEE, 2019.

Idowu-Bismark, Olabode, et al. ‘5G Small Cell Backhaul: A Solution Based on GSM-Aided Hybrid Beamforming.’ IJ Computer Network and Information Security, 24–31, 2019.

Forge, Simon, and Khuong Vu. ‘Forming a 5G strategy for developing countries: A note for policy makers. ’ Telecommunications Policy, 101975.2019, 2020

Sohaib, Rana Muhammad, et al. ‘Network Slicing for Beyond 5G Systems: An Overview of the Smart Port Use Case.’ Electronics, 2019.

Shaik, Altaf, Borgaonkar, Ravishankar, Park, Shinjo, et al. New vulnerabilities in 4G and 5G cellular access network protocols: exposing device capabilities. In: Proceedings of the 12th Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks, pp. 221–231, 2019.

R. Molina-Masegosa, J. Gozalvez, M. Sepulcre, ‘Comparison of IEEE 802.11 p and LTE-V2X: An evaluation with periodic and aperiodic messages of constant and variable size’. IEEE Access, 8, 121526–121548

K. C. Dey, A. Rayamajhi, M. Chowdhury, P. Bhavsar, J. Martin, ‘Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication in a heterogeneous wireless network–Performance evaluation’. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 68, 168–184, 2016.

Y. Ota, H. Taniguchi, T. Nakajima, K. M. Liyanage, J. Baba, A. Yokoyama, ‘Autonomous distributed V2G (vehicle-to-grid) satisfying scheduled charging’. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 3(1), 559–564, 2011.

M. Bagheri, M. Siekkinen, J. K. Nurminen, ‘Cellular-based vehicle to pedestrian (V2P) adaptive communication for collision avoidance’. In 2014 international conference on connected vehicles and expo (ICCVE) (pp. 450–456). IEEE, 2014.

A. Ghosal, M. Conti, ‘Security issues and challenges in V2X: A survey’. Computer Networks, 169, 107093, 2020.

L. Mendiboure, ‘Distribution géographique de données dans l’Internet des Véhicules: une approche logicielle et sécurisée utilisant les réseaux cellulaires’, Doctoral dissertation, Université de Bordeaux, 2020.

J. Zhang, F. Y. Wang, K. Wang, W. H. Lin, X. Xu, C. Chen, ‘Data-driven intelligent transportation systems: A survey’. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 12(4), 1624–1639, 2011.

S. A. A. Hakeem, A. A. Hady, H. Kim, ‘Current and future developments to improve 5G-NewRadio performance in vehicle-to-everything communications’. Telecommunication Systems, 75(3), 331–353, 2020.

S. Laqtib, K. El Yassini, M. L. Hasnaoui, ‘A technical review and comparative analysis of machine learning techniques for intrusion detection systems in MANET’. International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 10(3), 2701, 2020.

M. Ouaissa, M. Houmer, M. Ouaissa, ‘An enhanced authentication protocol based group for vehicular communications over 5G networks’. In 2020 3rd International Conference on Advanced Communication Technologies and Networking (CommNet) (pp. 1–8). IEEE, 2020.

S. Laqtib, K. El Yassini, M. L. Hasnaoui, ‘A novel energy aware OLSR in mobile ad hoc networks: EA-OLSR’. In International Conference on Research in Applied Mathematics and Computer Science (Vol. 2021). ICRAMCS 2021, 2021.

S. Arslan, M. Saritas, ‘The effects of OFDM design parameters on the V2X communication performance: A survey’. Vehicular Communications, 7, 1–6, 2017.

K. Abboud, H. A. Omar, W. Zhuang, ‘Interworking of DSRC and cellular network technologies for V2X communications: A survey’. IEEE transactions on vehicular technology, 65(12), 9457–9470, 2016.

W. Sun, D. Yuan, E. G. Ström, F. Brännström, ‘Cluster-based radio resource management for D2D-supported safety-critical V2X communications’. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 15(4), 2756–2769, 2015.

R. P. Jover, ‘Security and impact of the IoT on LTE mobile networks’. Security and Privacy in the Internet of Things (IoT): Models, Algorithms, and Implementations, 6, 2015.

M. T. Kawser, M. S. Fahad, S. Ahmed, S. S. Sajjad, H. A. Rafi, ‘The perspective of vehicle-to-everything (v2x) communication towards 5g’. IJCSNS, 19(4), 146, 2019.

H. T. Cheng, H. Shan, W. Zhuang, ‘Infotainment and road safety service support in vehicular networking: From a communication perspective’. Mechanical systems and signal processing, 25(6), 2020–2038.

CAMP Vehicle Safety Communications Consortium. ‘Vehicle safety communications project: Task 3 final report: identify intelligent vehicle safety applications enabled by DSRC’. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, US Department of Transportation, Washington DC (2005).

C. Bila, F. Sivrikaya, M. A. Khan, S. Albayrak, S. ‘Vehicles of the future: A survey of research on safety issues’. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 18(5), 1046–1065, 2016.

R. Baldessari, B. Bödekker, M. Deegener, A. Festag, W. Franz, C. C. Kellum, W. Zhang, ‘Car-2-car communication consortium-manifesto’.

Y. Zhang, R. Wang, M. S. Hossain, M. F. Alhamid, M. Guizani, ‘Heterogeneous information network-based content caching in the internet of vehicles’. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 68(10), 10216–10226, 2019.

N. A. N. Ch, ‘Intelligent traffic monitoring and control system’. University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2019.

European Commission. (2015). Road safety in the European Union: Trends, statistics and main challenges. Technical Report.

Ertico, Together we bring intelligence into mobility, 2018, (Accessed on October 15). [Online]:

NTU Media Release, Paving the way for Singapore’s future land transport system, 2018, (Accessed on October 12). [Online]:

KDDI, Toyota and kddi to jointly promote establishment of global communications platform to support car connectivity, 2018, (Accessed on October 12). [Online]:

Shanghaidaily, Autonomous connected cars on their way, 2018, (Accessed on October 12). [Online]:

A. Alnasser, H. Sun, J. Jiang, Cyber security challenges and solutions for V2X communications: A survey. Computer Networks, 151, 52–67, 2019.

Hussein, H. H., Elsayed, H. A., El-kader, A., & Sherine, M. (2020). Intensive Benchmarking of D2D communication over 5G cellular networks: prototype, integrated features, challenges, and main applications. Wireless Networks, 26(5), 3183–3202.

Salem, M. A., Tarrad, I. F., Youssef, M. I., & Abd El-kader, S. M. (2020). An adaptive EDCA selfishness-aware scheme for dense WLANs in 5G networks. IEEE Access, 8, 47034–47046.

Zhong, R. Y., Xu, X., Klotz, E., & Newman, S. T. (2017). Intelligent manufacturing in the context of industry 4.0: a review. Engineering, 3(5), 616–630.

P. M. Kumar, G. Manogaran, R. Sundarasekar, N. Chilamkurti, R. Varatharajan, ‘Ant colony optimization algorithm with internet of vehicles for intelligent traffic control system’. Computer Networks, 144, 154–162, 2018.

A. Tolba, ‘Content accessibility preference approach for improving service optimality in internet of vehicles’. Computer Networks, 152, 78–86, 2019.

G. A. Akpakwu, B. J. Silva, G. P. Hancke, A. M. Abu-Mahfouz, ‘A survey on 5G networks for the Internet of Things: Communication technologies and challenges’. IEEE access, 6, 3619–3647, 2017.

3GPP, Feasibility Study on New Services and Markets Technology Enablers, Stage 1, Technical Report, Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects, 2016.

NGMN, Next Generation Mobile Networks, Technical Report, NGMN Alliance, 2015.

Khan, I. U., Qureshi, I. M., Aziz, M. A., Cheema, T. A., & Shah, S. B. H. (2020). Smart IoT control-based nature inspired energy efficient routing protocol for flying ad hoc network (FANET). IEEE Access, 8, 56371–56378.

C. Bernardos, A. De La Oliva, P. Serrano, An architecture for software defined wireless networking, IEEE Wirel. Commun. 21 (3) 52–61, 2014.

P. Agyapong, M. Iwamura, K.W. Staehle D, A. Benjebbour, Design considera- tions for a 5g network architecture, IEEE Commun. Mag. 65–75, 2014

V. Yazici, U. Kozat, M. Sunay, A new control plane for 5g network architecture with a case study on unified handoff, mobility, and routing management, IEEE Commun. Mag. 76–85, 2014.

M. Boban, A. Kousaridas, K. Manolakis, J. Eichinger, W. Xu, Use cases, require- ments, and design considerations for 5g v2x, arXiv: 1712.01754, 2017.

S. Chen, J. Hu, Y. Shi, Y. Peng, J. Fang, R. Zhao, L. Zhao, Vehicle-to-everything (v2x) services supported by LTE-based systems and 5G, IEEE Commun. Stand. Mag. 1(2) 70–76, 2017.

M. Ouaissa, M. Ouaissa, ‘An Improved Privacy Authentication Protocol for 5G Mobile Networks’. In 2020 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication & Materials (ICACCM) (pp. 136–143). IEEE, 2020.

AVISPA Project:

Crypto++ Library:






5G and a Vision of 6G