Refresh Rate and Graphical Benchmarks for Mobile VR Application Development

Authors

  • Zhong Wang Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, New Zealand https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7113-3439
  • Kenneth Foo Department of Electrical, Computer, and Software Engineering, University of Auckland, New Zealand
  • Steven Yan Department of Electrical, Computer, and Software Engineering, University of Auckland, New Zealand
  • Vicente A. Gonzalez Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, New Zealand
  • Nasser Giacaman Department of Electrical, Computer, and Software Engineering, University of Auckland, New Zealand

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.13052/jmm1550-4646.1865

Keywords:

Virtual Reality, Usability, Smart Mobile Devices, Lag

Abstract

Virtual reality (VR) technology is quickly becoming more accessible to the general public due to the availability and capabilities of modern smartphone devices. However, such mobile devices are not as powerful as high-end desktop systems where VR is mostly established. Running demanding VR apps leads to performance issues such as lag, excessive heat, and fast battery drainage. To avoid these problems, software factors must be optimised. The user evaluation (N=51)(N=51) involved presenting multiple VR scenes (with varying frame rates), requiring participants to judge which scenes felt smooth; the results indicate that anything below 50 FPS was tolerable at best and nauseating at worst. To also measure the performance impact of various software settings, benchmarks were conducted on different smartphones. The results highlight the effects when varying the number of displayed on-screen objects, as well as outlining which settings should be avoid when specifically targeting mobile VR platforms. Heat and battery life were found to be non-issues at recommended performance levels. The proposed work established valuable guidelines which can be helpful for real time applications in development time reduction and complexity simplification from graphical and refresh rate optimization perspectives.

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Author Biographies

Zhong Wang, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, New Zealand

Zhong Wang is a Master of Engineering Student (Thesis-based) at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. His research interests are infrastructure project management via digital twin and decision-making systems assisted by data visualization techniques including Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, and Mixed Reality.

Kenneth Foo, Department of Electrical, Computer, and Software Engineering, University of Auckland, New Zealand

Kenneth Foo is a final-year Bachelor of Engineering (Honours) student studying Computer Systems Engineering at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. His development interests include AI, machine learning, and virtual reality.

Steven Yan, Department of Electrical, Computer, and Software Engineering, University of Auckland, New Zealand

Steven Yan is a final-year Bachelor of Engineering (Honours) student studying Computer Systems Engineering at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. His development interests include neural networks, game development, and virtual reality.

Vicente A. Gonzalez, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, New Zealand

Vicente A. Gonzalez is an Associate Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Department at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. His research interests are at the interface of construction engineering and management, and computer science focusing on lean construction, AI, computer simulation and modelling, mixed-reality and building information modelling.

Nasser Giacaman, Department of Electrical, Computer, and Software Engineering, University of Auckland, New Zealand

Nasser Giacaman is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Electrical, Computer, and Software Engineering at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. His disciplinary research includes parallel programming, with current research focusing on exploring software technologies for a number of different educational domains.

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Published

2022-07-18

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