Study of Indoor Small Cell Deployments


  • Rui R. Paulo Instituto de Telecomunicações and Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
  • Fernando J. Velez Instituto de Telecomunicações and Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
  • Bahram Khan Instituto de Telecomunicações and Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal



Small cells, femtocells, HeNBs, EESM, LTE-Sim, goodput, packet loss ratio, HeNBs deployment ratio, saturation


This work aims at studying the indoor deployment of small cells, also known as femtocells, to provide coverage to a 5×5 grid geometry. The number of deployed HeNBs is 4, 5, or 6. An updated version of LTE-Sim is considered to extract values for Exponential Effective SINR Mapping (EESM), Packet Loss Ratio (PLR), maximum number of supported users, goodput and delay. Results reveal that the use of four HeNBs corresponds to the highest values of EESM. For the considered geometry, 3GPP suggested a maximum of five HeNBs. However, this deployment shows worser performance compared to the topology with four HeNBs. The geometry with six HeNBs is the one with the best overall performance results for the 5×5 grid of apartments.


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Author Biographies

Rui R. Paulo, Instituto de Telecomunicações and Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal

Rui R. Paulo. Received the Licenciatura and M.Sc. degrees in Electromechanical Engineering from Universidade da Beira Interior (UBI), Covilhã, Portugal, in 2005 and 2008, respectively. He is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering at Universidade da Beira Interior. He serves as a volunteer in VTS Portugal Chapter, since 2006. He is with Instituto de Telecomunicações since 2006. His research interests include tele traffic engineering for wireless communications, radio resource management for small cell networks, packet scheduling and network optimization in heterogeneous networks with femtocells.

Fernando J. Velez, Instituto de Telecomunicações and Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal

Fernando J. Velez (M93SM05) received the Licenciado, M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical and Computer Engineering from Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon in 1993, 1996 and 2001, respectively. Since 1995 he has been with the Department of Electromechanical Engineering of Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal, where he is Assistant Professor. He is also a senior researcher of Instituto de Telecomunicações. Fernando was an IEF Marie Curie Research Fellow in King’s College London (KCL) in 2008/09 (OPTIMOBILE IEF) and a Marie Curie ERG fellow at Universidade da Beira Interior from 2010 until March 2013 (PLANOPTI ERG). Fernando is the coordinator of the Instituto de Telecomunicações team in the Marie Skłodowska-Curie ITN Action (TeamUp5G) that started in 2019. He made or makes part of the teams of several European and Portuguese research projects on mobile communications and he was the coordinator of six Portuguese projects. Recently, he was the coordinator of CONQUEST (CMU/ECE/0030/2017), an exploratory project from Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Portugal, a collaboration with the Department of Engineering and Public Policy from CMU. He has authored three books, 24 book chapters, 160 papers and communications in international journals and conferences, plus 39 in national conferences. Fernando is currently the IEEE VTS Region 8 (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Chapter Coordinator (nominated by VTS in 2010) and was the elected IEEE VTS Portugal Chapter coordinator from 2006 until 2014. He is also the adjunct coordinator from the Telecommunications Specialization of Ordem dos Engenheiros. Prof. Velez was the coordinator of the WG2 (on Cognitive Radio/Software Defined Radio Co-existence Studies) of COST IC0905 TERRA. His main research areas are cellular planning tools, traffic from mobility, wireless body sensor networks and wearable technologies, cross-layer design, spectrum sharing/aggregation, and cost/revenue performance of advanced mobile communication systems.


Bahram Khan, Instituto de Telecomunicações and Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal

Bahram Khan He is an Early Stage Researcher (ESR7) since November 2019 at the Instituto de Telecomunicações and a Ph.D. student at the University of Beira Interior Covilhã, Portugal. He did his bachelor’s degree from COMSATS University in 2016 and Master studies from Bahria University in 2018 in the department of Electrical Engineering from Pakistan Islamabad. His research interest is HetNet, small cell deployments, carrier aggregation, cell-free. Currently, the project on which he is working is focused on 5G and beyond, which is titled as “Licensed Shared Access in Heterogeneous Network with Small Cells”, and is under the TeamUp5G and funded by Marie Skłodowska-Curie Innovative Training Networks (MSCA ITN) of the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 framework.


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