Design and Development of an Android App Based on Firebase in the Study of Unsportsmanlike Behaviors in Grassroots Tennis Competitions




App, cloud, evaluation, Firebase, forms, management, psychology, tennis, web


This paper presents the design, development and evaluation of an android application based on the Google Firebase platform aimed to facilitate the creation of questionnaires and collection of data for the management of sports and unsportsmanlike behaviors in grassroots tennis competitions. Although sportsmanship among players is the most common situation, in low categories sometimes aggressive or violent situations may occur and not always with the presence of referees. In recent years, the use of conventional questionnaires has been the most widespread tool to obtain information on sports and unsportsmanlike behaviors in sports competitions. The developed system allows tennis tournament organizers to easily create forms linked to the players in order to evaluate different psychological aspects during the competition. Players are notified and they answer the proposed questions on their mobile devices at the end of the matches. By using the application it is easy to collect the responses of the competitors and process and evaluate them. The developed system is based on a client-server architecture where the Firebase platform acts as system server and the application is the client that communicates with it. The application was validated by a tournament administrator showing a high level of usability. Afterwards it has been tested in a real tournament with 20 players (in a total of 34 matches) answering a form consisting of 13 questions to evaluate sports and unsportsmanlike behaviors. The results in this pilot tournament showed the perception of sportsmanship of the players as very good, but also showed that parents or companions interfere in children’s matches and two potential cases of unsportsmanlike conduct were detected. This system may become a versatile and useful tool for improvement of players’ psychological wellbeing during grassroots tennis competitions.


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Author Biographies

José García, Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50018, Spain

José García was born in Zaragoza, Spain, in 1971. He received the M.S. degree in physics and the Ph.D. degree (European doctorate and award) from the University of Zaragoza in 1994 and 1998, respectively.

He is a Full Professor in the Department of Electronics Engineering and Communications in the University of Zaragoza. He was the Head of the department from 2009 to 2013. He is a member of the Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A) and his professional research interests focus on issues related to biomedical engineering (in the field of e-Health) and telematics engineering (encoding, transmission, management, security and quality of service). He has performed research stays in the US, Sweden and Austria. He has published over 50 papers in international journals and more than 160 in national and international conference proceedings. He has coordinated and/or participated in over 50 research projects for both public and private funding and has advised 7 PhD thesis.

V. De Lera, Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50018, Spain

V. De Lera is a graduated in Telecommunications Technology and Services Engineering at the University of Zaragoza since the winter of 2019. He has worked in important companies dedicated to software engineering since 2015 where he has acquired a solid experience in the development of web applications. He is currently working in projects dedicated to innovation related to low-code development platforms at Everis (NTT Data Company).

D. Lacambra, Aragón Tennis Federation (Federación Aragonesa de Tenis, FAT), Zaragoza 50009, Spain

D. Lacambra is a qualified professional with more than 20 years of experience in the field of formal education and sports. He received his PhD in Educational Psychology from University of Zaragoza, (Spain) in 2015. He also obtained a Bachelor Degree in Pedagogy and Psychology, in Sport Education Teaching and in Early Childhood Teaching, all of them from University of Zaragoza. His career is divided between formal education as a teacher at the San Vicente de Paul School (Zaragoza, Spain) and as a tennis coach (ITF, level 2) of the competition and high-competition groups of the Aragonesa Tennis Federation for more than 15 years. Currently, his interests are involved in the Sports Psychology, obtained the Master in Sports Psychology from UNED (Madrid, Spain) in 2020.

F. Gimeno, Department of Psychology and Sociology, University of Zaragoza, Huesca 22001, Spain

F. Gimeno is a Ph.D. Psychology. He carried out his PhD thesis assessing psychological variables related to sports performance and their implications for injury prevention, continuity in competitive sports and sports performance. In 2002, he joined the Zaragoza University as an Associated Professor, and since 2012, he is professor for sport psychology at the Faculty for Health and Sport Sciences at Zaragoza University. He has published more than 95 scientific articles.

Álvaro Alesanco, Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50018, Spain

Álvaro Alesanco was born in Ezcaray (La Rioja) in March 1977. In 2001 he received the degree in Telecommunications Engineer from the University of Zaragoza (UZ) and in 2007 the title of Doctor (“Cum Laude”) within the program of PhD in Communications Technology and Telematics. He has extensive experience in the cybersecurity and data security, with special emphasis on healthcare environments, in addition to the development and implementation of interoperability standards for medical devices and clinical information systems, in telemonitoring architectures and in general, in the design, optimization and evaluation of e-Health applications and services.


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How to Cite

García, J., De Lera, V., Lacambra, D., Gimeno, F., & Alesanco, Álvaro. (2021). Design and Development of an Android App Based on Firebase in the Study of Unsportsmanlike Behaviors in Grassroots Tennis Competitions. Journal of Mobile Multimedia, 17(4), 603–636.