Interference Management Techniques in Small Cells Overlaid Heterogeneous Cellular Networks


  • Soumya Ranjan Samal Faculty of Telecommunications, Technical University of Sofia, Bulgaria


Interference, Interference management, Heterogeneous Cellular Network, Small Cells, Cell Less, Closed Subscriber Group


Now-a-days because of the rapid increase in mobile users mobile data has also raised. Due to the heavy demand of data rates for advanced applications service providers are forced to adopt different technological advancements in conventional networks. Looking toward this context heterogeneous networks (HetNets) play a vital role in future 5G wireless cellular network deployment. In Heterogeneous Cellular Networks (HCNs) low power small cells are overlaid with the existing macro-only cell which increases the complexity of the network. Some of the emerging network technologies for this cellular evolution are the Femtocell, Picocell and Metrocell networks. Due to the deployment of these small cells in HCNs there are wide varieties of network structures and different transmitting powers which lead to interference in the cellular network. In addition to this, due to the spatiotemporal distribution of the mobile users and their mobility, hotspots also lead to increase of the possibilities of interference generation in wireless cellular network systems. The major technical issues associated with the mass deployment of smaller cells are related to the interference management between smallcells i.e. Femtocells and other serving cells in the same spectrum. Since Femtocells and Macrocells share the same frequency bands, it is necessary to develop efficient interference management techniques to increase the capacity and throughput of HCNs. So in order to meet the user demands in an efficient way without affecting the quality of service (QoS) and throughput of the network, many interference management schemes and power control approaches have been proposed for successful deployment of HCNs. In this paper a review with a brief analysis of some of the efficient interference management techniques along with their challenges is proposed, while keeping the main focus on the hardware interference management techniques. An overview on the coverage and capacity optimization problems in a multi-tier cellular network is also presented.



Download data is not yet available.


Poulkov, V., (2016). Beyond the next generation access in R. Prasad,

S. Dixit (eds) Wireless world in 2050 and beyond: A window into the

future!, Springer Series inWireless Technology. ch. 2, 17–39.

Cisco. (2012). Cisco visual networking index: Global mobile data traffic

forecast update, White Paper.

Ericsson. (2011). Differentiated mobile broadband, White Paper.

Metis. (2013). Scenarios, requirements and KPIs for 5G mobile and

wireless system, ICT-317669 METIS project.

Kyoseva, T., et al. (2014). Disruptive innovations as a driving force

for the change of wireless telecommunication infrastructures, Springer

Journal, Wireless Personal Communications, 78(3), 1683–1697, doi:


Lopez-Perez, D., et al. (2011). Enhanced intercell interference coordination

challenges in heterogeneous networks, in IEEE Wireless

Communications, 18(3), 22–30, doi: 10.1109/MWC.2011.5876497

Bendlin, R. et al. (2011). From homogeneous to heterogeneous networks,

A 3GPP Long Term Evolution Rel. 8/9 Case Study, in 45th

Annual Conference on Information Sciences and Systems (CISS), pp. 1–5,

Baltimore, MD.

Hegde, N. and Altman, E. (2003). Capacity of multiservice WCDMA

networks with variable GoS, IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking

(WCNC-2003), pp. 1402–1407, vol. 2, New Orleans, LA, USA,

Mar. 2003.

Madan, R., et al. (2010). Cell association and interference coordination

in heterogeneous LTE-A cellular networks, IEEE Journal On Selected

Areas In Communications, 28(9), 1479–1489.

Samal, S. R., et al. (2017). Coverage analysis of heterogeneous wireless

network with n-interacted transmission nodes, IGI Global, International

Journal of Interdisciplinary Telecommunications and Networking

(IJITN), 9(4), 49–58, doi: 10.4018/IJITN.2017100106.

Bandopadhaya, S., et al. (2017). Base station transmission power optimization

in interference-limited cellular networks for maximum energy

efficiency, in Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Advanced

Technologies, Systems and Services in Telecommunications (TELSIKS),

pp. 228–231, Nish, Serbia.

Sahin, M. E., Guvenc, I., and Jeong, M. (2009). Handling CCI and ICI

in OFDMA femtocell networks through frequency scheduling, in IEEE

Transactions on Consumer Electronics, 55(4), 1936–44.

Li, H., Xu, X., and Hu, D. (2010). Graph method based clustering strategy

for femtocell interference management and spectrum efficiency improvement,

in 6th International Conference on Wireless Communications

Networking and Mobile Computing (WiCOM), pp.1–5, Chengdu.

Park, S., et al. (2010). Beam subset selection strategy for interference

reduction in two-tier femtocell networks, IEEE Transactions onWireless

Communications, 9(11), 3440–49.

3GPP R1-106052. (2010). Per cluster based opportunistic power control,

GPP RAN1 Meeting, Jacksonville, FL.

Zhang, L., Yang, L., and Yang, T. (2010). Cognitive interference management

for LTE-A femtocells with distributed carrier selection, in 72nd

IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference Fall (VTC 2010-Fall), pp. 1–5.

Bhushan, N., et al. (2014). Network densification: the dominant theme for

wireless evolution into 5G, in IEEE Communications Magazine, 52(2),


Kang, X., Zhang, R., and Motani, M. (2012). Price-based resource

allocation for spectrum-sharing femtocell networks:AStackelberg game

approach, in IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 30(3),


Mishra, A. R. (2007). Advanced Cellular Network Planning and Optimization

G/2.5G/3G. . . Evolution to 4G, John Wiley & Sons Ltd,

pp. 71–77.

Rao, G. S. (2012). Mobile Cellular Communication, 1st Ed., PEARSON

International, pp. 235–260.

Rappaport, T. S. (2007). Wireless Communications: Principles and

Practice, 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall PTR, pp. 105–155.

Boudreau, G., et al. (2009). Interference coordination and cancellation

for 4G networks, IEEE Communication Magazine, 47(4), 74–81.

Lopez-Perez, D., Chu, X., and Guvenc, I. (2012). On the expanded region

of picocells in heterogeneous networks, in IEEE Journal of Selected

Topics in Signal Processing, 6(3), 281–294.

Guvenc, I., et al. (2011). Range expansion and inter-cell interference

coordination (ICIC) for picocell networks, IEEE Vehicular Technology

Conference (VTC Fall), pp. 1–6, San Francisco.

Guvenc, I. (2011). Capacity and fairness analysis of heterogeneous

networks with range expansion and interference coordination, IEEE

Communication Letters, 15(10), 1084–87.

Lee, B. G., Park, D., and Seo, H. (2008). Wireless Communications

Resource Management, JohnWiley & Sons, Singapore.

Katzela, I., and Naghshineh, M. (1996). Channel assignment schemes for

cellular mobile telecommunication systems:Acomprehensive survey, in

IEEE Personal Communications, 3(3), 10–31.

Kwon, H., et al. (2008). Inter-cell interference management for nextgeneration

wireless communication systems, in Journal of Communications

and Networks, 10(3), 258–267.

Hossain, E., et al. (2014). Evolution toward5Gmulti-tier cellular wireless

networks: An interference management perspective, in IEEE Wireless

Communications, 21(3), 118–127.

Do, M., and Son, J. (2014). Interference coordination in LTE/LTE-A (1):

inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC),

Hossain, E., Le, L. B., and Niyato, D. (2014). Radio Resource Management

in Multi-Tier Cellular Wireless Networks,Wiley Publication.

Zhang, D., et al. (2013). The time-domain enhanced inter-cell interference

coordination in heterogeneous networks, in 19th EuropeanWireless

Conference (EW-2103), pp. 1–5, Guildford, UK.

Chandrasekhar, V. and Andrews, J. G. (2009). Spectrum allocation in

tiered cellular networks, in IEEE Transaction Communications, 57(10),


Chandrasekhar, V., et al. (2009). Power control in two-tier femtocell

networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 8(8), 4316–

Damnjanovic, A., et al. (2011). A survey on 3GPP heterogeneous

networks, in IEEE Wireless Communications, 18(3), 10–21.

Khandekar, A., et al. (2010). LTE Advanced: heterogeneous networks,

in European Wireless Conference (EW-2010), pp. 978–982, Lucca.

Chai, X., et al. (2015).Auser-pairing power control algorithm in two-tier

HetNet, in 81st IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring),

pp. 1–5.

Lee, Y. L., et al. (2014). Recent Advances in Radio Resource Management

for Heterogeneous LTE/LTE-ANetworks, in IEEE Communication

Surveys & Tutorials, 16(4), 2142–2180.

Wang, Y. and Venkatraman, S. (2012). Uplink power control in LTE

heterogeneous networks, in 4th IEEE InternationalWorkshop on Heterogeneous

and Small Cell Networks (HetNets), GlobecomWorkshops (GC

Wkshps), pp. 592–597.

Sun, Y., Jover, R. P., Wang, X. (2012). Uplink interference mitigation

for OFDMA femtocell networks, in IEEE Transactions on Wireless

Communications, 11(2), 614–625.

Li, J. (2013). Uplink power control for heterogeneous networks,

IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC),

pp. 773–777.

Poulkov, V., et al. (2014). Combined power and inter-cell interference

control forLTEbased on role game approach, Springer Journal, Telecommunication

Systems, 55(4), 481–489, doi: 10.1007/s11235-013-9803-1

Koleva, P., et al. (2015). Risk assessment based LTE hetnet uplink

power and interference control, in Proceeding of the 38th International

Conference of Telecommunications and Signal Processing, pp. 210–214,

Prague, Czech Republic, July 2015.

Koleva, P., et al. (2012). Interference limited uplink power control based

on a cognitive approach, in Proceedings of International Conference on

Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP), pp. 242–246, Prague,

Czech Republic.

Sun, D., et al. (2011). Downlink power control in cognitive femtocell

networks, IEEE Wireless Communication and Networking Conference,

pp. 1–5, Nanjing.

Park, S., et al. (2011). A beamforming codebook restriction for crosstier

interference coordination in two-tier femtocell networks, IEEE

Transactions Vehicular Technology, 60(4), 1651–1663.

Novlan, T. D., et al. (2011). Analytical evaluation of fractional frequency

reuse for OFDMA cellular networks, in IEEE Transactions on Wireless

Communications, 10(12), 4294–4305.

Elfadil, H. E. E. O. M., Ali, M. A. I., and Abas, M. (2015). Fractional

frequency reuse in LTE networks, in 2nd World Symposium on Web

Applications and Networking (WSWAN), pp. 1–6, Sousse.

Imran, A., Imran, M.A., and Tafazolli, R. (2010).Anovel self organizing

framework for adaptive frequency reuse and deployment in future cellular

networks, in 21st Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal,

Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, pp. 2354–2359, Instanbul.

Saquib, N., Hossain, E., and Kim, D. I. (2013). Fractional frequency reuse

for interference management in LTE-advanced hetnets, in IEEEWireless

Communications, 20(2), 113–122.

Hassan, T. U., et al. (2018). Interference management in femtocells by

the adaptive network sensing power control technique, Future Internet,

(3), 25, doi: 10.3390/fi10030025

Yang, Z., et al. (2016). Power control and resource allocation

for multi-cell OFDM networks, in IEEE Conference on Computer

Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), pp. 891–896.

San Francisco, CA.

Liu, Z., et al. (2017). Robust power allocation based on hierarchical game

with consideration of different user requirements in two-tier femtocell

networks, Elsevier Computer Networks, 122, 179–190.

Jiang,Y., et al. (2018). Power control via Stackelberg game for small-cell

networks, arXiv: 1802.04775 [cs.IT].

Gochev, H., Poulkov, V., and Iliev, G. (2013). Improving cell edge

throughput for LTE using combined uplink power control, Springer

Journal, Telecommunication Systems, 52, 1541–1547, ISSN: 1018-4864.

Asenov, O., Koleva, P., and Poulkov, V. (2013). Heuristic approach

to dynamic uplink power control in LTE, in Proceedings of International

Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP),

pp. 235–238, Rome, Italy.

Koleva, P., et al. (2014). Improved open loop power control for LTE

uplink, in Proceedings of International Conference on Telecommunications

and Signal Processing (TSP), pp. 183–187, Berlin, Germany.

Cheng, S. M., and Chen, K. C. (2013). Cognitive radios to mitigate

interference in macro/femto heterogeneous networks, Heterogeneous

Cellular Networks, pp. 119–144, doi: 10.1002/9781118555262.ch6

Cheng, S. M., et al. (2011). On exploiting cognitive radio to mitigate

interference in macro/femto heterogeneous networks, in IEEE Wireless

Communications, 18(3), 40–47.

Huang, L., Zhu, G., and Du, X. (2013). Cognitive femtocell networks:

an opportunistic spectrum access for future indoor wireless coverage, in

IEEE Wireless Communications, 20(2), 44–51.

Simsek, M., Bennis, M., and Czylwik, A. (2012). Dynamic inter-cell

interference coordination in hetnets:Areinforcement learning approach,

in Wireless Networking Symposium, Globecom-2012, Anaheim.

Han, Z., Ji, Z., and Liu, K. J. R. (2007). Non-cooperative resource

competition game by virtual referee in multi-cell OFDMA networks, in

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 25(6), 1079–1090.

Kwon, H. and Lee, B. G. (2006). Distributed resource allocation through

non-cooperative game approach in multi-cell OFDMAsystems, in IEEE

International Conference on Communications, pp. 4345–4350, Istanbul.

Gao, Q., et al. (2012). Interference management in heterogeneous

network, in 7th International Conference on Communications and

Networking in China, 379–383, Kun Ming.

Kaimaletu, S., et al. (2011). Cognitive interference management in

heterogeneous femto-macro cell networks, in IEEE International Conference

on Communications (ICC), pp. 1–6, Kyoto.

Zhang, L., Yang, L., Yang, T. (). Cognitive interference management

for LTE-A femtocells with distributed carrier selection, in 72nd IEEE

Vehicular Technology Conference Fall (VTC 2010-Fall), pp. 1–5, Ottawa.

Claussen, H. (2006). Distributed algorithms for robust self-deployment

and load balancing in autonomous wireless access networks, in IEEE

International Conference on Communications, pp. 1927–1932, Istanbul.

Garcia, L.G. U., Pedersen, K. I., and Mogensen, P. E. (2009).Autonomous

component carrier selection: interference management in local area environments

for LTE-advanced, IEEE Communications Magazine, 47(9),

pp. 110–116.

C. R. Prasanth, et al. (2013). Beam forming and adaptive beam forming

techniques and its implementation on ADSP TS 201 processor, IOSR

Journal of VLSI and Signal Processing (IOSR-JVSP), 3(5), pp. 07–17.

Van Veen, B. D., and Buckley, K. M. (1988). Beamforming: A versatile

approach to spatial filtering, in IEEE ASSP Magazine, 5(2), 4–24.

Bak, J., et al. (2013). Interference mitigation techniques for femtocell

networks, International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and

Communication Systems, pp. 251–256, Naha.

Husso, M., et al. (2010). Interference mitigation by practical transmit

beamforming methods in closed femtocells, EURASIP Journal on

Wireless Communications and Networking, Article ID 186815, Springer

International Publishing,

Zhang, D., et al. (2015). Joint femtocell clustering and selective

beamforming for interference mitigation in heterogeneous networks,

IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China

(ICCC), pp. 2–4.

Oguejiofor, O., and Zhang, L. (2016). Heuristic coordinated beamforming

for heterogeneous cellular network, in 83rd IEEE Vehicular

Technology Conference (VTC Spring), pp. 1–5, Nanjing.

Park, S., et al. (2010). Beam subset selection strategy for interference

reduction in two-tier femtocell networks, IEEE Transactions onWireless

Communications, 9(11), 3440–3449.

Yilmaz, O. N. C., Hamalainen, S., and Hamalainen, J. (2009). System

level analysis of vertical sectorization for 3GPP LTE, in 6th International

Symposium onWireless Communication Systems, pp. 453–457, Tuscany.

Siomina, I., Varbrand, P., and Yuan, D. (2006). Automated optimization

of service coverage and base station antenna configuration in UMTS

networks, in IEEE Wireless Communications, 13(6), 16–25.

Athley, F., Johansson, M. N. (2010). Impact of electrical and mechanical

antenna tilt on LTE downlink system performance, in 71st IEEE Vehicular

Technology Conference (VTC 2010-Spring), pp. 1–5, Taipei.

Parikh, J., and Basu, A. (2014). Impact of base station antenna height and

antenna tilt on performance of LTE systems, IOSR Journal of Electrical

and Electronics Engineering (IOSR-JEEE), 9(4), 06–11.

Cho, H. S., Kim, Y. I., and Sung, D. K. (2002). Protection against

cochannel interference from neighboring cells using down-tilting of

antenna beams, in 53rd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, vol. 3,

pp. 1553–1557, Rhodes.

Partov, B., Leith, D. J., and Razavi, R. (2015). Utility fair optimization

of antenna tilt angles in LTE networks, IEEE/ACM Transactions on

Networking, 23(1), 175–185.

Yilmaz, O. N. C., Hamalainen, J., and Hamalainen, S. (2010). Selfoptimization

of remote electrical tilt, in 21st IEEE International Symposium

on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC),

pp. 1128–1132, Instanbul.

Razavi, R., Klein, S., and Claussen, H. (2010). Self-optimization of

capacity and coverage in LTE networks using a fuzzy reinforcement

learning approach, in 21st IEEE International Symposium on Personal

Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), pp. 1865–1870,


Li, J. et al. (2012). Self-optimization of coverage and capacity in

LTE networks based on central control and decentralized fuzzy Qlearning,

International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 8(8),

doi: org/10.1155/2012/878595

Thampi, A., et al. (2012). A sparse sampling algorithm for selfoptimisation

of coverage in LTE networks, International Symposium on

Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS), pp. 909–913.

Dandanov, N., et al. (2017). Dynamic self-optimization of the antenna

tilt for best trade-off between coverage and capacity in mobile networks,

Wireless Personal Communications: Springer Link, 92(1), 251–278.

Li, X., et al. (2015). Metrocell Antennas: The positive impact of a narrow

vertical beamwidth and electrical downtilt, IEEE Vehicular Technology

Magazine, 10(3), 51–53.

Kemp, S. (2014). Improving metro cell performance with electrical

downtilt and upper sidelobe suppression, Commscope White Paper.

Bandemer, B., Gamal, A. E., and Kim, Y. H. (2012). Simultaneous nonunique

decoding is rate-optimal, in Proceedings of the 50th Allerton

Conference, pp. 9–16, USA.

Baccelli, F., Gamal, A. E., Tse, D. N. C. (2011). Interference networks

with point-to-point codes, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory,

(5), 2582–2596.

Nam, W., et al. (2014). Advanced interference management for 5G

cellular networks, in IEEE Communications Magazine, 52(5), 52–60.

Hong, S., et al. (2014). Applications of self-interference cancellation in

G and beyond, in IEEE Communications Magazine, 52(2), 114–121.

Han, T., et al. (2017). 5G converged cell-less communications in smart

cities, in IEEE Communications Magazine, 55(3), 44–50.

Ge, X., et al. (2017). Energy Efficiency challenges of 5G small cell

networks, in IEEE Communications Magazine, 55(5), 184–191.

Poulkov, V. (2017). The unified wireless smart access for smart cities in

the context of a cyber physical system, in Proceedings of GlobalWireless

Summit (GWS), pp. 17–21, Cape Town, South Africa.







Most read articles by the same author(s)