Evaluation of Distance Error with Bluetooth Low Energy Transmission Model for Indoor Positioning
Keywords:Distance error, indoor positioning, Bluetooth low energy (BLE) beacon, location-based service (LBS), linear regression model (LRM).
Currently, an indoor positioning is a challenge application for location-based services (LBS) and proximity-based services (PBS). However, the indoor channel has dense multipath fading, causing more distance error than outdoor positioning. In this paper, the distance error analysis model is proposed for indoor positioning. The indoor channel is modeled as the sum of path loss model and multipath fading model. The path loss model is a linear regression model (LRM) based on Friis’ transmission formula, used for estimating the distance from received signal strength (RSS). The multipath fading is a Gaussian statistical model with zero mean, used for characterizing the multipath fading effect. The normalized distance error is evaluated and defined. The indoor channel with Bluetooth low energy (BLE) beacons is measured and compared with the proposed model. From the results, the normalized distance error obtained from the proposed model corresponds very well to measurement. This proposed model can be used as a tool for designing an indoor positioning system to obtain the specific distance error.
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