Framework for Simulation-Based Simultaneous System Optimization for a Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle

Authors

  • Katharina Baer Division of Fluid and Mechatronic Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden
  • Liselott Ericson Division of Fluid and Mechatronic Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden
  • Petter Krus Division of Fluid and Mechatronic Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.13052/ijfp1439-9776.2012

Keywords:

Simulation-based optimization, hydraulic hybrid vehicle, series hybrid, simultaneous design and control optimization,, Hopsan

Abstract

Hybridization of hydraulic drivetrains offers the potential of efficiency improvement for on- and off-road applications. To realize the advantages, a carefully designed system and corresponding control strategy are required, which are commonly obtained through a sequential design process.Addressing component selection and control parameterization simultaneously through simulation-based optimization allows for exploration of a large design space as well as design relations and trade-offs, and their evaluation in dynamic conditions which exist in real driving scenarios. In this paper, the optimization framework for a hydraulic hybrid vehicle is introduced, including the simulation model for a series hybrid architecture and component scaling considerations impacting the system’s performance.Anumber of optimization experiments for an on-road light-duty vehicle, focused on standard-drivecycle- performance, illustrate the impact of the problem formulation on the final design and thus the complexity of the design problem. The designs found demonstrate both the potential of energy storage in series hybrids, via an energy balance diagram, as well as some challenges. The framework presented here provides a base for systematic evaluation of design alternatives and problem formulation aspects.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Katharina Baer, Division of Fluid and Mechatronic Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden

Katharina Baer received her Ph.D. at the division of Fluid and Mechatronic Systems at Linköping University, Sweden, in 2018. She has since joined the division of Machine Design at Linköping University. Her interests lie in system modelling, simulation and optimization, in particular concerning hydraulic hybrid systems.

Liselott Ericson, Division of Fluid and Mechatronic Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden

Liselott Ericson received a D.Sc. degree at Linköping University, Sweden, in 2012. The topic of her thesis is related to noise reduction in hydraulic pumps and motors. She is a research fellow at Fluid and Mechatronic Systems at LiU. The areas of interest include control design, modelling, simulation and noise in fluid power systems.

Petter Krus, Division of Fluid and Mechatronic Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden

Petter Krus is a professor and head of division of Fluid and Mechatronic Systems at Linköping University in Sweden. He is also holder of the Swedish Endowed Chair in Aeronautics at “Instituto Technólogico Aeronáutica”, ITA in Brazil. His field of research is in fluid power systems, aeronautics, systems engineering, modelling and simulation and design optimization.

References

Assanis, D., et al., 1999. Optimization Approach to Hybrid Electric

Propulsion System Design. Journal of Mechanics of Structures and

Machines, 27(4), 393–421.

Assanis, D. and Heywood, J., 1986. Development and Use of a

Computer Simulation of theTurbocompounded Diesel System for Engine

Performance and Component Heat Transfer Studies. In: Proceedings of

the SAE International Congress and Exposition, 24-28 February 1986,

Detroit, MI, USA.

Baer, K., 2018. Simulation-Based Optimization of a Series Hydraulic

Hybrid Vehicle. Thesis (PhD). Linköping University.

Barlow, T.J., et al., 2009. A Reference Book of Driving Cycles for Use in

the Measurements of Road Vehicle Emissions. Project Report PPR354.

Department for Transport, UK.

Bowns, D.E., Vaughan, N.D., and Dorey, R.E., 1981. Design Study of

a Regenerative Hydrostatic Split Power Transmission for a City Bus.

In: IMecE Hydrostatic Transmissions for Vehicle Applications, 1981,

Coventry, UK, 29–38.

Buchwald, P., et al., 1979. Improvement of Citybus Fuel Economy using

a Hydraulic Hybrid Propulsion System –ATheoretical and Experimental

Study. In: Proceedings of theSAECongress and Exposition, 26 February–

March 1979, Detroit, MI, USA.

Burgess, E., Peffers, M., and Silverman, I., 2009. Idling Gets You

Nowhere. The Health, Environmental and Economic Impacts of Engine

Idling in New York City. Technical Report, Environmental Defense Fund.

Carson, Y. and Maria, A., 1997. Simulation Optimization: Methods and

Applications. In: Proceedings of the 1997Winter Simulation Conference,

–10 December 1997, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Deppen, T.O., et al., 2010. Predictive Energy Management for Parallel

Hydraulic Hybrid Passenger Vehicle. In: Proceedings of the ASME

Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, 12–15 September 2010,

Cambridge, MA, USA.

Digeser, S., et al., 2005. Der neue Dreizylinder-Dieselmotor von

Mercedes-Benz für Smart und Mitsubishi. Motortechnische Zeitschrift,

(1), 6–12.

Eriksson, B., Nordin, P., and Krus, P., 2010. Hopsan NG, A C++

Implementation using the TLM Simulation Technique. In: Proceedings

of the 51st Conference on Simulation and Modelling, 14–15 October

, Oulu, Finland.

Fellini, R.A., 1998. Derivative-free and Global Search Optimization

Algorithms in an Object-oriented Design Framework. Thesis (MSc).

University of Michigan.

Filipi, Z., et al., 2004. Combined Optimisation of Design and Power

Management of the Hydraulic Hybrid Propulsion System for the 6×6

Medium Truck. International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems, 11(3/4),

–402.

Guzzella, L. and Sciarretta, A., 2013. Vehicle Propulsion Systems. 3rd

ed. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer.

Karbaschian, M.A., 2014. Improving System Design and Power

Management for Hybrid Hydraulic Vehicles Minimizing Fuel Consumption.

Thesis (PhD). University of Duisburg-Essen.

Karbaschian, M.A. and Söffker, D., 2014. Review and Comparison of

Power Management Approaches for Hybrid Vehicles with Focus on

Hydraulic Drives. Energies, 7(6), 3512–3536.

Kargul, J., et al., 2015. Design and Demonstration of EPA’s Integrated

Drive Module for Commercial Series Hydraulic Hybrid Trucks and

Buses. SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles, 8(2),

–567.

Kim, Y.J., 2008. Integrated Modeling and Hardware-in-the-Loop Study

for Systematic Evaluation of Hydraulic Hybrid Propulsion Options.

Thesis (PhD). University of Michigan.

Korkmaz, F., 1975. Verbrennungshydraulischer Hybridantrieb

für Stadtfahrzeuge. Thesis (PhD). Technical University of Berlin.

Krus, P., 2003. Simulation Based Optimisation for System Design.

In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Engineering

Design, 19–21 August 2003, Stockholm, Sweden.

Krus, P. and Ölvander, J., 2013. Performance Index and Meta-

Optimization of a Direct Search Optimization Method. Engineering

Optimization, 45(10), 1167–1185.

Kumar, R., Ivantysynova, M., andWilliams, K., 2007. Study of Energetic

Characteristics in Power Split Drives for On Highway Trucks and

Wheel Loaders. In: Proceedings of the Commercial Vehicle Engineering

Congress and Exhibition, 30 October–1 November 2007, Rosemont,

IL, USA.

Li, C.-T. and Peng, H., 2010. Optimal Configuration Design for Hydraulic

Split Hybrid Vehicles. In: Proceedings of the 2010 American Control

Conference, 30 June–2 July 2010, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Macor, A. and Rossetti, A., 2011. Optimization of Hydro-Mechanical

Power Split Transmissions. Mechanism and Machine Theory, 46(12),

–1919.

Manring, N.D., et al., 2014. Scaling the Speed Limitations for Axial-

Piston Swash-Plate Type Hydrostatic Machines. Journal of Dynamic

Systems, Measurements, and Control, 136(3), 031004.

Nordin, P., Braun, R., and Krus, P., 2015. Job-Scheduling of

Distributed Simulation-Based Optimization with Support for Multi-

Level Parallelism. In: Proceedings of the 56th Conference on Simulation

and Modelling, 7-9 October 2015, Linköping, Sweden.

Nyman, J. and Rydberg, K.-E., 2001. Energy Saving Lifting Hydraulic

Systems. In: Proceedings of the Seventh Scandinavian International

Conference on Fluid Power, 30 May–1 June 2001, Linköping, Sweden.

Otis, D.R. and Pourmovahed, A., 1984. Improving Performance of Gas-

Charged Accumulators Using Elastomeric Foams. In: Proceedings of

the International Symposium on Advanced and Hybrid Vehicles, 17–19

September 1984, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Reyer, J.A., 2000. Combined Embodiment Design and Control

Optimization: Effects of Cross-Disciplinary Coupling. Thesis (PhD).

University of Michigan.

Rydberg, K.-E., 1983. On Performance Optimization and Digital Control

of Hydrostatic Drives for Vehicle Applications. Thesis (PhD). Linköping

University.

Sprengel, M. and Ivantysynova, M., 2016. Neural Network Based Power

Management of Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles. International Journal of

Fluid Power, 18(2), 79–91.

Stelson, K.A., et al., 2008. Optimization of a Passenger Hydraulic

Hybrid Vehicle to Improve Fuel Economy. In: Proceedings of the 7th

JFPS International Symposium on Fluid Power, 15–18 September 2008,

Toyama, Japan.

Surampudi, B., et al., 2009. Design and Control Considerations for a

Series Heavy Duty Hybrid Hydraulic Vehicle. In: Proceedings of the

SAE 2009 Powertrains Fuels and Lubricants Meeting, 2–4 November

, San Diego, CA, USA.

Tikkanen, S., et al., 2017. Emission Reduction of Mobile Machines by

Hydraulic Hybrid. In: Proceedings of the 15th Scandinavian International

Conference on Fluid Power, 7–9 June 2017, Linköping, Sweden.

Tsai, S.-C. and Goyal, M., 1986. Dynamic Turbocharged Diesel Engine

Model for Control Analysis and Design. In: Proceedings of the SAE

International Congress and Exposition, 24–28 February 1986, Detroit,

MI, USA.

Tutuianu, M., et al., 2013. Development of a World-wide Worldwide

harmonized Light duty driving Test Cycle (WLTC). Technical Report

GRPE-68-03, UN/ECE/WP.29/GRPE/WLTP-IG, DHC subgroup.

Wahlström, J. and Eriksson, L., 2011. Modelling Diesel Engines with

a Variable-Geometry Turbocharger and Exhaust Gas Recirculation by

Optimization of Model Parameters for Capturing Non-linear System

Dynamics. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part

D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 225(7), 960–986.

Wu, B., et al., 2002. Optimization of Power Management Strategies for a

Hydraulic Hybrid Medium Truck. In: Proceedings of the 2002 Advanced

Vehicle Control Conference, 9–13 September 2002, Hiroshima, Japan.

Wu, P., et al., 1985. Fuel Economy and Operating Characteristics of a

Hydropneumatic Energy StorageAutomobile. In: Proceedings of the SAE

Passenger Car Meeting, 23–26 September 1985, Dearborn, MI, USA.

Yang, Y., et al., 2016. State-of-the-Art Electrified Powertrains – Hybrid,

Plug-in, and Electric Vehicles. International Journal of Powertrains,

(1), 1–29.

Downloads

Published

2019-04-18

Issue

Section

Original Article