A novel hydromechanical hybrid motion system for construction machines


  • Karl Pettersson Driveline Systems, Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden
  • Kim Heybroek Emerging Technologies, Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden
  • Petter Krus Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2315-0680




Hydraulic hybrid, powersplit, secondary control, wheel loader


This paper deals with a novel type of hybrid motion system for construction machines based on a common pressure rail shared between a hydromechanical power-split transmission and secondary controlled work hydraulics. A construction machine with driveline and work functions is a complex coupled motion system and the design of an effective hybrid system needs to take both subsystems into account. Studies on energy efficient hybrid systems for construction machines have hitherto principally focused on one subsystem at a time – work hydraulics or driveline. The paper demonstrates a use case with a specific transmission concept proposal for a medium-sized wheel loader. The system is modelled and simulated using an optimal energy management strategy based on dynamic programming. The results show the benefits of a throttle-free bidirectional link between the machine’s subsystems and the energy storage, while taking advantage of the complex power flows of the power-split transmission.,


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Karl Pettersson, Driveline Systems, Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden

Karl Pettersson received his MSc degree in Mechanical Engineering from Linköping University, Sweden in 2009. He continued at the university as a PhD student in the division of Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. In 2013 he received his Licentiate degree within design automation of hydromechanical transmissions. He is now working at Volvo Construction Equipment with the focus on the design and control of hydromechanical hybrid drivelines.

Kim Heybroek, Emerging Technologies, Volvo Construction Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden

Kim Heybroek received his MSc degree from Linköping University, Sweden, in Mechanical Engineering in 2006. In 2008 he received his Licentiate Degree at the division of Fluid and Mechatronics Systems. In 2008 he was with Volvo Construction Equipment in Eskilstuna as a hydraulics design engineer mainly dealing with valve technologies for wheel loaders. In 2010 he joined the Emerging Technologies department, where he is currently working with electro-hydraulics and new machine concepts.

Petter Krus, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden

Petter Krus is a professor in Fluid and Mechatronic Systems at Linkoping University. Research interests are fluid power, mechanical and mechatronic systems technology, specifically focusing on system dynamics, control, system simulation, optimisation, system design and design automation. Applications are in aircraft design, road vehicles and construction machinery


Achten, P.A.J., 2008. A serial hydraulic hybrid drive train for

off-road vehicles. Proceedings of the national conference on

fluid power, 51, 515–521.

Ayalew, B. and Molla, S.K., 2011. Power management

strategies for a series hydraulic hybrid drivetrain.

International journal of powertrains, 1 (1), 93–116.

Cheong, K.L., et al., 2014. Hierarchical control strategy

for a hybrid hydro-mechanical transmission (HMT)

powertrain. American control conference (ACC). Portland,

OR, 4599–4604.

Filla, R., 2009. Hybrid power systems for construction

machinery: aspects of system design and operability

of wheel loaders. ASME 2009 international mechanical

engineering congress and exposition. Lake Buena Vista, FL,

Vol. 13, 611–620.

Heybroek, K. and Norlin, E., 2015. Hydraulic multichamber

cylinders in construction machinery. Linköping:

Hydraulikdagarna 2015.

Heybroek, K., Vael, G. and Palmberg, J.-O., 2012. Towards

resistance-free hydraulics in construction machinery. 8th

international fluid power conference, Dresden, Germany.

Inderelst, M., et al., 2011. Energy efficient system layout

for work hydraulics of excavators. 12th Scandinavian

international conference on fluid power, Tampere, Finland.

Karbaschian, M.A. and Söffker, D., 2014. Review and

comparison of power management approaches for hybrid

vehicles with focus on hydraulic drives. Energies, 7 (6),


Kimura, A., Abe, T. and Sasaki, S., 1999. Drive force control

of a parallel-series hybrid system. JSAE review, 20 (3),


Kumar, R. and Ivantysynova, M., 2011. An instantaneous

optimization based power management strategy to reduce

fuel consumption in hydraulic hybrids. International

journal of fluid power, 12 (2), 15–25.

Li, P.Y. and Mensing, F., 2010. Optimization and control of

a hydro-mechanical transmission based hybrid hydraulic

passenger vehicle. 7th international fluid power conference,

Aachen, Germany.

Linjama, M., et al., 2009. Secondary controlled multi-chamber

hydraulic cylinder. 11th Scandinavian international

conference on fluid power, Linköping, Sweden.

Liu, J. and Peng, H., 2006. Control optimization for a powersplit

hybrid vehicle. American control conference (AAC),

Portland, OR, 466–471.

Mikeska, D., 2002. A precise steady-state model of

displacement machines for the application in virtual

prototyping of power-split drives. 2nd FPNI – PhD

symposium, Modena, Italy.

Pettersson, K. and Tikkanen, S., 2009. Secondary control in

construction machinery – design and evaluation of an

excavator swing drive. 11th Scandinavian international

conference on fluid power, Linköping, Sweden.

Renius, K.T. and Resch, R., 2005. Continuously variable

tractor transmissions. Agricultural equipment technology

conference, ASAE distinguished lecture no. 29, 14–16

February 2005, Louisville, Kentucky, USA, 1–37. American

Society of Agricultural Engineers.

Sannelius, M., Rydberg, K.-E. and Palmberg, J.-O., 1999.

Hydrostatic transmissions for wheel loaders – an

experimental study of a multiple-motor concept. 4th JHPS

international symposium on fluid power, Tokyo, Japan.

Sipola, A., et al., 2008. Digital hydraulic system. s.l. Patent no.

US 9021798.

Stein, G. et al., 2013. Fuel efficiency in construction equipment

– optimize the machine as a system. International

commercial powertrain conference, Graz, Austria.

Sundström, O. and Guzzella, L., 2009. A generic dynamic

programming Matlab function. IEEE international

conference on control applications & intelligent control, St.

Petersburg, Russia, Issue 7, 1625–1630.

Wang, F., et al., 2016. Energy management strategy for a

power-split hydraulic hybrid wheel loader. Proceedings of

the institution of mechanical engineers, Part D: journal of

automobile engineering, 230 (8), 1105–1120.

Wei, S., et al., 2013. Parameter matching analysis of hydraulic

hybrid excavators based on dynamic programming

algorithm. Journal of applied mathematics, 2013, 10.

Wu, B., et al., 2004. Optimal power management for a

hydraulic hybrid delivery truck. Vehicle system dynamics,

(1–2), 23–40.




How to Cite

Pettersson, K., Heybroek, K., & Krus, P. (2018). A novel hydromechanical hybrid motion system for construction machines. International Journal of Fluid Power, 18(1), 17–28. https://doi.org/10.1080/14399776.2016.1210423



Original Article