Localization in Cellular and Heterogeneous Networks for 5G and Beyond: A Review
Keywords:5G, cellular networks, fingerprinting, Het-Net, localization, positioning, triangulation, trilateration, wireless networks
Localization in modern and future wireless networks has been established as an important field of research work due to the requirements of location-based applications and services with variety of accuracy requirements. These are driven by the strong heterogeneity in terms of processing power, size and range of the nodes in beyond Fifth Generation (5G) telecommunications. Thus, localization methods in cellular and heterogeneous networks (Het-Nets) diversify in their application scenario (terrestrial and based on aerial platforms) and bands (licensed and unlicensed). They are categorized, according to the methodology used to perform the positioning, into three groups – fingerprinting (learning-based location estimation), trilateration and triangulation (distance or angular based), and hybrid (combining two geometric features of the received signals) methods. For each category, a summary of the methods’ design features and achieved accuracy is presented in tabular form. On the basis of the review, directions for future research are outlined, that will facilitate the further advancements in the design and application of localization methods for wireless communications.
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