NETWORK ADAPTIVE LAYERED MULTICAST FOR HETEROGENEOUS WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS
Keywords:Adaptive Multicast, Wireless networks
Layered transmission is a promising solution to video multicast over Heterogeneous Wireless Networks. However, since the number of layers is practically limited, noticeable mismatches would occur between the coarse-grained layer subscription levels and the heterogeneous and dynamic rate requirements from the receivers. In this paper, we propose a Network-adaptive Layered Multicast (NALM) approach, that exploits the increasing computing and communications capabilities of wireless devices. We show that by having few multicast nodes (about 10% the number of receivers) to encode and decode the video, an improvement of more than 30% in bandwidth efficiency could be achieved. Furthermore, due to the proximity of such encoding/decoding nodes to the receivers than the source itself, more accurate and faster evaluation of network conditions would be possible leading to faster convergence and further improvement in efficiency.
R. Govidan, Ed. (2006), Technical Document on Wireless and Sensor Experiments, GENI: Global
Environment for Network Innovations, GDD-06-22, Ver 1.0, Sep 15, 2006.
S. Paul, J. Evans, and D. Raychaudhuri, Eds. (2006), Technical Document on Overview -Wireless,
Mobile and Sensor Networks, GENI: Global Environment for Network Innovations, GDD-06-14,
Version 2.0, September 2006.
S. Paul, J. Evans, and D. Raychaudhuri, Eds. (2005), New Architectures and Disruptive Technologies
for the Future Internet: The Wireless, Mobile and Sensor Network Perspective, Report of
NSF Wireless Mobile Planning Group Workshop, Draft 2.0, August 2-3, 2005.
H. Radha, M. Schaar, and S Karande (2004), Scalable Video TranScaling for the Wireless Internet,
EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing (JASP) - Special Issue on Multimedia over IP
and Wireless Networks, Feb 2004.
K. Calvert, A. Campbell, A. Lazar, D. Wetherall, and R. Yavatkar Eds. (2001), Special issue on
active and programmable networks, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 19, no. 3,
S. McCanne, V. Jacobson, and M. Vetterli (1996), Receiver-Driven Layered Multicast, Proc. Applications,
technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communications, 1996, pp. 117–
F.Hwang, D. Richards and P.Winter (1992), The Steiner Tree Problem, Annals of Discrete Mathematics,
H. Salama, D. Reeves and Y. Viniotis (1997), Evaluation of multicast routing algorithms for realtime
communication on high-speed networks, IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun 15(3), 1997, pp.
M. Parsa, Q. Zhu and J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves (1998), An interative algorithm for delay-constrained
minimum-cost multicasting, IEEE Trans. on Networking 6(4), 1998, pp. 461–474.
M. Khansari, A. Zakauddin, W-Y. Chan, E. Dubois, P. Mermelstein (1994), Approaches to layered
coding for dual-rate wireless video transmission. In Proc. International Conference on Image
Processing, Oct. 1994, pp. 258–262.
U. Horn, K. Stuhlmuller, M. Link M, B. Girod (1999), Robust Internet video transmission based
on scalable coding and unequal error protection. Signal Process Image Communication 15(1-2),
, pp. 77-94.
ISO/IEC (1998), Information technology - coding of audiovisual objects: Visual (MPEG-4).
JTC1/SC29/WG11, Tokyo, Final Committee Draft 14496-2, 1998.
Telecom Standardization Sector ITU. (1998), Video coding for low bit rate communication” ITU-T
Recommendation H.263, ver 2, 1998.
D.-P. Wu, Y.-T. Hou, W. Zhu, Y.-Q. Zhang, and J. Peha (2001), Streaming video over the internet:
approaches and directions, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Tech., vol. 11, no. 3, March 2001, pp.
W. Li (2001), Overview of the fine granularity scalability in MPEG-4 video standard, IEEE Trans.
Circuits Syst. Video Tech, vol. 11, Mar. 2001, pp. 301-317.
S. Li, F. Wu, and Y.-Q. Zhang (2000), Experimental results with Progressive Fine Granularity
Scalable (PFGS) Coding, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11, MPEG99/m5742, March 2000.
D. Majumdar, G. Sachs, I.V. Kozintsev, and K. Ramchandran, Multicast and Unicast Real-Time
Video Streaming over Wireless LANs, IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology,
vol. 12, no. 6, June 2002, pp. 524–534.
Q. Li and M. van der Schaar (2004), Providing Adaptive QoS to Layered Video over Wireless Local
Area Networks through Real-Time Retry Limit Adaptation, IEEE Trans. Multimedia, vol. 6, no.
, Apr. 2004, pp. 278–290.
M. van der Schaar and S. Shankar (2005), Cross-Layer Wireless Multimedia Transmission: Challenges,
Principles and New Paradigms, IEEE Wireless Comm. Magazine, Vol. 12, Issue 4, Aug.
, pp. 50–58.
M. van der Schaar, Y. Andreopoulos and Z. Hu (2006), Optimized scalable video streaming over
IEEE802.11a/e HCCA wireless networks under delay constraints,” IEEE Trans. on Mobile Computing,
vol. 5, no. 6, June 2006, pp. 755–768.
C. Cordeiro, H. Gossain, and D. Agrawal (2003), Multicast over wireless mobile ad hoc networks:
present and future directions, IEEE Network, Vol. 17, Issue 1, Jan./Feb. 2003, pp. 52–59.
J. Liu, B. Li , Y-Q. Zhang (2003), Adaptive Video Multicast over the Internet, IEEE MultiMedia,
vol.10, no.1, Jan. 2003, pp. 22–33.
S. Mao, Y. T. Hou, X. Cheng, H. D. Sherali, S. F. Midkiff, and Y-Q. Zhang (2006), On routing
for multiple description video over wireless ad hoc networks, IEEE Trans. on Multimedia, vol.8,
no.5, October 2006, pp. 1063–1074.
Y. Wang, S. Lin (2001), Error resilient video coding using multiple description motion compensation,
Workshop on multimedia signal processing. IEEE Press, New York, 2001, pp. 441–447.
V. T. Nguyen, E-C. Chang, W. T. Ooi (2004), Layered Coding with Good Allocation Outperforms
Multiple Description Coding over Multiple Paths, In Proceedings of International Conference on
Multimedia and Expo (ICME), Volume 2, June 2004, pp. 1067–1070.
J. Chakareski, S. Han, and B. Girod (2005), Layered coding vs. multiple descriptions for video
streaming over multiple paths, Multimedia Systems, Multimedia Systems, Springer, Volume 10,
Number 4, April, 2005, pp. 275–285.
M. V. Jensen and B. Nielsen (1999), Real-Time Layered Video Compression Using SIMD Computation,
Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Vol 1557, 1999, pp. 377–387.
V. Stankovic, R. Hamzaoui, Z. Xiong (2005), Robust layered multiple description coding of scalable
media data for multicast, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, Volume 12, Issue 2, Feb. 2005, pp. 154–
J. Youn, J. Xin, and M.-T. Sun (200), Fast Video Transcoding Architectures for Networked Multimedia
Applications, Proc. IEEE Int’l Symp. Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 00), vol 4, 2000, pp.