Smart Border for Disease Control
Keywords:International border, disease control, smart Border, electronic border, Collaborative Border Management
Border crossing poses various risks, such as national security risks, risk of terrorism, and human trafficking, as well as the risk of an epidemic. In the process of disease control, Thailand has a system and mechanism of control in accordance with the standards of the World Health Organization and is recognized for the precision and tightness of the process. However, the screening and control process at land and marine border checkpoints still face the risks associated with cross border disease control due to the lack of preliminary information from passengers before crossing the border similar to those at an air-border crossing. It was found that the agencies involved in the land cross-border process would only become aware of passenger information when the passenger arrived at the crossing point. Initial screening and preparation procedures for coping with the risks were not timely, including the various resources at the border checkpoints such as screening tools, personnel, and screening sites. This paper aims to develop a cross-border management model that can help screen for diseases and support national security through digital technology. Therefore, the hypothesis has been proposed through the form of electronic border checkpoints for prevention, control, and tracking of transnational epidemics by screening all cross-border travelers. The existing system will be studied. The principles of collaborative border management (CBM) are the basis for the design, linkage, and integration between relevant departments. Further, simulation is a proof of our concept. The results show that data linkage and coordination between organizations build confidence and safety, reduces the risk of infection to people traveling across border agencies, and is in accordance with the National Digital Policy.
P. Boriboonrat, “Collaborative Border Management in Thailand and Neighboring Countries: Needs, Challenges and Issues,” International of Criminal Justice Sciences, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2013.
S. R. Jain, “Coordinated border management: the experience of Asia and the Pacific region 1,” vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 63–76.
The World Bank, Border Management Modernization. 2011.
United Nations for Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), “Improving Border Management to Facilitate Trade in SPECA: Challenges and Prospects,” vol. ST/ESCAP/, pp. 1–63, 2010.
A. Kmonpetch, “The Phenomenon of Cross-Border Human Trafficking: Complexities of Exploitation Issues in Thailand,” Kyoto Working Papers on Area Studies: G-COE Series, no. 104, pp. 1–21, 2011.
Y. C. Lee, “Human Trafficking Across Borders and the need for A Global Response,” 2014.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention, “Public Health Surveillance Using Emergency Medical Service Logs -U.S. -Mexico Land Border, El Paso, Texas, 2009.” pp. 649–653, 2010.
S. H. Waterman, M. Escobedo, T. Wilson, P. J. Edelson, J. W. Bethel, and D. B. Fishbein, “A new paradigm for quarantine and public health activities at land borders: Opportunities and challenges,” Public Health Reports, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 203–211, 2009.
B. McCloskey, O. Dar, A. Zumla, and D. L. Heymann, “Emerging infectious diseases and pandemic potential: Status quo and reducing risk of global spread,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1001–1010, 2014.
R. Sakano, K. Obeng, and K. Fuller, “Airport security and screening satisfaction: A case study of U.S.,” Journal of Air Transport Management, vol. 55, pp. 129–138, 2016.
ICAO, ICAO TRIP Guide on Border Control Management. 2018.
EU-LISA, “Smart Borders Pilot Project: Report on the technical conclusions of the Pilot,” 2015.
P. Boriboonrat, “Collaborative Border Management in Thailand and Neighboring Countries: Needs, Challenges and Issues,” International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 1, 2013.
International Organizations for Migration (IOM), “Foundation Training Officers, Law Enforcement Smuggling, Combating Smuggling of Migrants and Trafficking in Persons.” 2018.
European Commission, “Guidelines for Integrated Border Management in EC External Cooperation,” 2010.
Border Scetor Governance Group, “Border Sector Strategy: 2008–2013 A Framework for Collaboration for Border Sector Agencies,” 2013.
World Customs Organization, “Coordinated Border Management Compendium.” 2006.
T. Doyle, “Collaborative border management,” World Customs Journal, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 15–22, 2010.
P. Lehtonen and P. Aalto, “Smart and secure borders through automated border control systems in the EU? The views of political stakeholders in the Member States,” European Security, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 207–225, 2017.
European Commission, “Proposal for a REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL amending Regulation (EU) 2016/399 as regards the use of the Entry/Exit System.” 2016.
J. Vine, “‘Exporting the border’? An inspection of e-Borders,” 2013.
United Nations for Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific(ESCAP), “Model on integrated controls at border crossings,” 2012.
W. Gaber, U. Goetsch, R. Diel, H. W. Doerr, and R. Gottschalk, “Screening for infectious diseases at international airports: The Frankfurt model,” Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, vol. 80, no. 7, pp. 595–600, 2009.
R. D. Merrill et al., “Responding to communicable diseases in internationally mobile populations at points of entry and along porous borders, Nigeria, Benin, and Togo,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 23, no. December, pp. S114–S120, 2017.
World Health Organization (WHO), “Operational Guidelines on Cross-Border Control of Priority Communicable Diseases,” no. November. 2001.
M. M. Kuan, T. Lin, J. H. Chuang, and H. S. Wu, “Epidemiological trends and the effect of airport fever screening on prevention of domestic dengue fever outbreaks in Taiwan, 1998-2007,” International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. e693–e697, 2010.
L. Gold, E. Balal, T. Horak, R. L. Cheu, T. Mehmetoglu, and O. Gurbuz, “Health screening strategies for international air travelers during an epidemic or pandemic,” Journal of Air Transport Management, vol. 75, no. November 2018, pp. 27–38, 2019.
P. Ghassemi, T. Joshua Pfefer, J. P. Casamento, R. Simpson, and Q. Wang, “Best practices for standardized performance testing of infrared thermographs intended for fever screening,” PLoS ONE, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 1–24, 2018.
K. Wickramage, “Airport Entry and Exit Screening during the Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in Sierra Leone, 2014 to 2016,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2019, 2019.
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, “Infection prevention and control measures for Ebola virus disease Entry and exit screening measures,” European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, no. October, pp. 2–9, 2014.
Department of Disease Control, “The Communicable Disease Control Regulations,” 2003. [Online]. Available: https://ddc.moph.go.th/viral pneumonia/eng/file/laws/laws_eng_01_030263.pdf. (Accessed 3 February 2020)
United Nations for Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific(ESCAP), Business Process Analysis, no. September. 2012.
G. Rodirigues, “Measuring Border Agency Performance: Options for Benchmarking.”
European Commission, “Technical Study on Smart Borders,” 2014.
J. A. Jacobs and M. Van Ranst, “Biometric Fingerprinting for Visa Application: Device and Procedure Are Risk Factors for Infection Transmission,” vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 335–343, 2008.
N. Anne et al., “Feasibility and acceptability of an iris biometric system for unique patient identification in routine HIV services in Kenya,” International Journal of Medical Informatics, vol. 133, no. October 2019, 2020.
P. Pointner, “Hybrid tech: the future of biometric ID verification?,” Biometric Technology Today, vol. 2017, no. 8, pp. 8–10, 2017.
J. Guag, B. Addissie, and D. Witters, “Personal medical electronic devices and walk-through metal detector security systems: Assessing electromagnetic interference effects,” BioMedical Engineering Online, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2017.
A. Hoffman and E. Bhero, “A Simulation Approach to the Optimized Design of Cross-border Operations,” IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC, vol. 2015-Octob, pp. 1416– 1423, 2015.
C. Standing Committee for Economic and Commercial Cooperation of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, “Improving the Border Agency Cooperation Among the OIC Member States for Facilitating Trade,” 2016.
M. Nalin et al., “The European cross-border health data exchange roadmap: Case study in the Italian setting,” Journal of Biomedical Informatics, vol. 94, no. November 2018, p. 103183, 2019.
Accenture, “Emerging Technologies at the Border,” 2017.
Y. Liu, “Scenario study of biometric systems at borders,” Computer Law and Security Review, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 36–44, 2011.
S. Shams, “GDPR and immigration requirements: how to fulfil both,” Employment Law Journal, vol. July/ Augu, no. August, 2018.
GSMA, “Regional Privacy Frameworks and Cross-Border Data Flows How ASEAN and APEC can Protect Data and Drive Innovation,” 2018.
ISO, “ISO/TR 13154:2017(en) Medical electrical equipment—Deployment, implementation and operational guidelines for identifying febrile humans using a screening thermograph.” [Online]. Available: https:// www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:tr:13154:ed-2:v1:en:fn:1. (Accessed 10 February 2020)
P. Hausfater, Y. Zhao, S. Defrenne, P. Bonnet, and B. Riou, “Cutaneous infrared thermometry for detecting febrile patients,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1255–1258, 2008.
World Customs Organization, “Report on Guidlines for the Procurement and Deployment of Scanning /NII Equipment,” 2018.
S. Opasanon and S. Kitthamkesorn, “Border crossing design in light of the ASEAN Economic Community: Simulation based approach,” Transport Policy, vol. 48, pp. 1–12, 2016.
World Health Organization (WHO), “Key considerations for repatriation and quarantine of travellers in relation to the outbreak of novel coronavirus 2019-nCoVle.” [Online]. Available: https://www.who.in t/news-room/articles-detail/key-considerations-for-repatriation-and-qu arantine-of-travellers-in-relation-to-the-outbreak-of-novel-coronaviru s-2019-ncov. (Accessed 17 February 2020).
N. G. Paulter, “The National Institute of Justice Standards for Hand-Held and Walk-Through Metal Detectors Used in Concealed Weapon and Contraband Detection,” no. June, 2002.