EEHRP: Energy Efficient Hybrid Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks


  • Nandkumar Kulkarni Sinhgad Institutes, Pune, India
  • Dnyaneshwar Mantri Sinhgad Institutes, Pune, India
  • Neeli Rashmi Prasad International Technological University (ITU), San Jose, USA
  • Ramjee Prasad Department of Business Development and Technology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Herning, Denmark



Energy Consumption, Routing, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), multi-objective-optimization


With Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO) mechanisms, many practical scenarios are imitated in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In MOO numerous desirable conflicting or non-conflicting objectives contend with one another and the decision has to be done among multiple available solutions. Based on the type of situation, Programme, and issue to be solved, the MOO problem has varied solutions. The solution chosen is a tradeoff solution on several occasions. In WSN, it is possible to identify MOO issues and associated solutions based on network architecture, node deployment, MAC strategies, routing, data aggregation, node mobility, etc. In this context, the paper proposes mobility aware, competent; delay tolerant Energy Efficient Hybrid Routing Protocol (EEHRP). Optimizing several metrics to pick the best route from the source to the target node is the cornerstone of the EEHRP. Multi-Objective optimization from optimization theory is a NP-hard problem. EEHRP seeks to obtain a Pareto optimal solution for the section of best MOO-based route under sensor node. The simulation results demonstrate that, relative to state-of-the-art solutions, EEHRP is efficient in terms of energy, throughput, delay, control- and routing-overheads. Furthermore, the paper investigates statistical significance of the findings obtained across confidence intervals. To prove EEHRP’s competence, a confidential interval of 95% is inserted into the simulation results obtained to represent margin of error around the estimated points. The on-hand state-of-art solutions and the propensity of the research fraternity in relation to MOO are also analyzed in this paper.


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Author Biographies

Nandkumar Kulkarni, Sinhgad Institutes, Pune, India

Nandkumar P. Kulkarni received Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.) degree in Electronics Engineering from Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli, Maharashtra, (India) in 1996. He has been with Electronica, Pune from 1996–2000. He worked on retrofits, CNC machines and was also responsible for PLC programming. In 2000, he received the Diploma in Advanced Computing (C-DAC) degree from MET’s IIT, Mumbai. In 2002, He became Microsoft Certified Solution Developer (MCSD). He worked as a software developer and system analyst in CITIL, Pune and INTREX India, Mumbai respectively. He has 23 years of experience both in industry and academia. From 2002 onwards he is working as a faculty in Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune. Since 2007, he is working with SKNCOE, Pune as a faculty in IT Department. He completed his Master of Technology (M. Tech) degree with computer specialization from College of Engineering Pune (COEP) (India) in 2007. He has been awarded Ph.D. from Aarhus University, Denmark in 2019. His area of research is in WSN, VANET, and Cloud Computing. He has published 1 book chapter, papers in 18 International Journals, 15 papers in IEEE International conferences, and 03 papers in National Conferences. He is working on various committees at University and College.

Dnyaneshwar Mantri, Sinhgad Institutes, Pune, India

Dnyaneshwar S. Mantri, PhD, IEEE Senior Member is graduated in Electronics Engineering from Walchand Institute of Technology, Solapur (MS) India in 1992 and received Masters from Shivaji University in 2006. He has awarded PhD. in Wireless Communication at Center for TeleInFrastruktur CTIF), Aalborg University, Denmark in March 2017. He has teaching experience of 25years. From 1993 to 2006 he was working as a lecturer in different institutes [MCE Nilanga, MGM Nanded, and STB College of Engg. Tuljapur (MS) India]. From 2006 he is associated with Sinhgad Institute of Technology, Lonavala, Pune and presently working as Professor in Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering. He is member of IEEE, Life Member of ISTE and IETE. He has written three books, published 15 Journal papers in indexed and reputed Journals (Springer, Elsevier, and IEEE etc.) and 23 papers in IEEE conferences. He is reviewer of international journals (Wireless Personal Communication, Springer, Elsevier, IEEE Transaction, Communication society, MDPI etc.) and conferences organized by IEEE. He worked as TPC member for various IEEE conferences and also organized IEEE conference GCWCN2014 and GCWCN2018. He worked on various committees at University and College. His research interests are in Adhoc Networks, Wireless Sensor Networks, Wireless Communications, VANET, Embedded Security specific focus on energy and bandwidth.

Neeli Rashmi Prasad, International Technological University (ITU), San Jose, USA

Neeli Rashmi Prasad, Ph.D., IEEE Senior Member, Director of CTIF-USA, Princeton, USA, leading IoT Test-bed at Easy Life Lab and Secure Cognitive radio network test-bed at S-Cogito Lab and Professor at International Technological University (ITU), San Jose, CA, USA. She received her Ph.D. from University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy, in the field of “adaptive security for wireless heterogeneous network” in 2004 and M.Sc (Ir.) degree in Electrical Engineering from Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, in the field of “Indoor Wireless Communications using Slotted ISMA Protocols” in 1997. During her industrial and academic career for over 14 years, she has lead and coordinated several projects. At present, she is leading an industry-funded projects on Security and Monitoring (STRONG) and on reliable self-organizing networks REASON, Project Coordinator of European Commission (EC) CIP-PSP LIFE 2.0 for 65+ and social interaction and Integrated Project (IP) ASPIRE on RFID and Middleware and EC Network of Excellence CRUISE on Wireless Sensor Networks. She is co-caretaker of real world internet (RWI) at Future Internet. She has lead EC Cluster for Mesh and Sensor Networks and Counselor of IEEE Student Branch, Aalborg. She is Aalborg University project leader for EC funded IST IP e-SENSE on Wireless Sensor Networks and NI2S3 on Homeland and Airport security and ISISEMD on telehealth care. She is also part of the EC SMART Cities workgroup portfolio. She joined Libertel (now Vodafone NL), Maastricht, The Netherlands as a Radio Engineer in 1997. From November 1998 until May 2001, she worked as Systems Architect for Wireless LANs in Wireless Communications and Networking Division of Lucent Technologies, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands. From June 2001 to July 2003, she was with T-Mobile Netherlands, The Hague, The Netherlands as Senior Architect for Core Network Group. Subsequently, from July 2003 to April 2004, she was Senior Research Manager at PCOM:I3, Aalborg, 82 P. M. Pawar et al. Denmark. Her publications range from top journals, international conferences, and chapters in books. She has also co-edited and co-authored two books titled “WLAN Systems and Wireless IP for Next Generation Communications” and “Wireless LANs and Wireless IP Security, Mobility, QoS and Mobile Network Integration,” published by Artech House, 2001 and 2005. Her research interests lie in the area of Security, Privacy and Trust, Management or Wireless and wired networks and Energy-efficient Routing.

Ramjee Prasad, Department of Business Development and Technology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Herning, Denmark

Ramjee Prasad is a Professor of Future Technologies for Business Ecosystem Innovation (FT4B1) in the Department of Business Development and Technology, Aarhus University, Denmark. He is the Founder President of the CTIF Global Capsule (CGC). He is also the Founder Chairman of the Global ICT Standardization Forum for India, established in 2009. GISFI has the purpose of increasing of the collaboration between European, Indian, Japanese, North-American and other worldwide standardization activities in the area of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and related application areas. He has been honored by the University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Italy as a Distinguished Professor of the Department of Clinical Sciences and Translational Medicine on March 15, 2016. He is Honorary Professor of University of Cape Town, South Africa, and University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. He has received Ridderkorset of Dannebrogordenen (Knight of the Dannebrog) in 2010 from the Danish Queen for the internationalization of top-class telecommunication research and education. He has received several international awards such as: IEEE Communications Society Wireless Communications Technical Committee Recognition Award in 2003 for making contribution in the field of “Personal, Wireless and Mobile Systems and Networks”. Telenor’s Research Award in 2005 for impressive merits both academic and organizational within the field of wireless and personal communication, 2014 IEEE AESS Outstanding Organizational Leadership Award for: “Organizational Leadership in developing and globalizing the CTIF (Center for TeleInFrastruktur) Research Network”, and so on. He has been Project Coordinator of several EC projects namely, MAGNET, MAGNET Beyond, eWALL and so on. He has published more than 30 books, 1000 plus journal and conference publications, more than IS patents, over 100 Ph.D. Graduates and larger number of Masters (over 250). Several of his students are today worldwide telecommunication leaders themselves.


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How to Cite

Kulkarni, N., Mantri, D., Prasad, N. R. ., & Prasad, R. (2021). EEHRP: Energy Efficient Hybrid Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. Journal of Mobile Multimedia, 17(1-3), 245–272.




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