Spectrum Sharing and Dynamic Spectrum Management Techniques in 5G and Beyond Networks: A Survey

Keywords: Spectrum, Dynamic Spectrum Management (DSM), Spectrum Sharing, Machine Learning, Spectral Efficiency, Spectrum Allocation.


Advancing technologies and bandwidth-hungry applications have increased mobile data traffic in the radio spectrum. Utilizing spectrum is one of the indispensable performance metric seconded by techniques to increase the bandwidth. Spectrum efficient techniques have always been a part of all the generations of wireless communication. It has considered being of utmost criticality with 5G networks. The spectrum sharing and management demand contributions from technical research groups as well as regulatory bodies. Recently, many technologies proved their potentials to invoke efficient spectrum utilization. Different approaches have been considered including cognitive radio, machine learning for dynamic spectrum management, spectrum sharing, spectrum harmonization, spectrum identification strategies, etc. Efficient technology is very important in order to have high spectral as well as energy efficiency. It is also important from a cost-efficiency perspective. Therefore, this paper presents an overview of the various spectrum sharing and management aspects. This comparative study is motivated to provide a clear picture to design a spectrum efficient system for 5G and beyond the network.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Nidhi, Aarhus University, Denmark

Nidhi is a Ph.D. student at the Aarhus University in the Department of Business Development and Technology at Herning, Denmark. She is an Early-Stage Researcher in the project TeamUp5G, a European Training Network in the frame of (MSCA ITN) of the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 framework. Nidhi received her Bachelor’s degree in Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering in 2013. She attended the Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra -– India, where she received her Masters’ degree in Electronics and Communication (Wireless Communication) in 2015. She worked with CTIF India (2015–2017) as Full-time Researcher. She worked with MNCs during 2017–2019 as Senior Communication Engineer. Her Ph.D. work focusses on achieving high spectral efficiency with 6G Networks.

Albena Mihovska, Aarhus University, Denmark

Albena Mihovska is Associate Professor at the Department of Business Development and Technology, Aarhus BSS, Aarhus University, Denmark. She has been with the Department of Business Development and Technology, Aarhus BSS, Aarhus University since February 2017. She received her PhD in Mobile wireless communications, Aalborg University, Denmark. Albena Mihovska is currently teaching a 1st-semester course in the B.Sc. and GMM programs and is a supervisor of TS and master projects the Cand. Polyt program.

Ramjee Prasad, Aarhus University, Denmark

Ramjee Prasad, Fellow IEEE, IET, IETE, and WWRF, is a Professor of Future Technologies for Business Ecosystem Innovation (FT4BI) in the Department of Business Development and Technology, Aarhus University, Herning, Denmark. He is the Founder President of the CTIF Global Capsule (CGC). He is also the Founder Chairman of the Global ICT Standardization Forum for India, established in 2009. He has been honored by the University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Italy as a Distinguished Professor of the Department of Clinical Sciences and Translational Medicine on March 15, 2016. He is Honorary Professor of University of Cape Town, South Africa, and University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. He has received Ridderkorset af Dannebrogordenen (Knight of the Dannebrog) in 2010 from the Danish Queen for the internationalization of top-class telecommunication research and education. He has received several international awards such as: IEEE Communications Society Wireless Communications Technical Committee Recognition Award in 2003 for making contribution in the field of “Personal, Wireless and Mobile Systems and Networks”, Telenor’s Research Award in 2005 for impressive merits, both academic and organizational within the field of wireless and personal communication, 2014 IEEE AESS Outstanding Organizational Leadership Award for: “Organizational Leadership in developing and globalizing the CTIF (Center for TeleInFrastruktur) Research Network”, and so on. He has been Project Coordinator of several EC projects namely, MAGNET, MAGNET Beyond, eWALL. He has published more than 50 books, 1000 plus journal and conference publications, more than 15 patents, over 140 PhD Graduates and larger number of Masters (over 250). Several of his students are today worldwide telecommunication leaders themselves.


Ericsson. (2019). Ericsson Mobility Report. [Online]. Available: https://www.ericsson.com/en/mobility-report/reports/june-2019.

Cerwall, Patrik, et al. “Ericsson Mobility Report June 2020.” Ericsson.com, Fredrik Jejdling, 19 June 2020, www.ericsson.com/en/mobility-report/reports/june-2020.

Flynn, Kevin. “A Global Partnership.” Release 15, 2017, www.3gpp.org/release-15.

ITU-, R. “Managing the Radio-Frequency Spectrum for the World.” ITU, Dec. 2019, www.itu.int/en/mediacentre/backgrounders/Pages/itu-r-managing-the-radio-frequency-spectrum-for-the-world.aspx.

ITU R M Report. www.itu.int/dms pub/itu-r/opb/rep/R-REP-M.2243-2011-PDF-E.pdf

Abecassis, David, et al. “Report: International Comparison: Licensed, Unlicensed, and Shared Spectrum, 2017-2020.” CTIA, Jan. 2020, www.ctia.org/news/report-international-comparison-licensed-unlicensed-and-shared-spectrum-2017-2020.

FCC. “Radio Spectrum Allocation.” Federal Communications Commission, 19 June 2020, www.fcc.gov/engineering-technology/policy-and-rules-division/general/radio-spectrum-allocation.

Ericsson. “5G Spectrum Harmonization - Mobility Report.” Ericsson.com, 6 May 2020, www.ericsson.com/en/mobility-report/articles/the-need-for-5g-spectrum-harmonization-wef-edition.

GSA. “Spectrum for Terrestrial 5G Networks.” GSA, 2 Aug. 2018, gsacom.com/paper/spectrum-terrestrial-5g-networks/.

3GPP. “A Global Partnership.” Specifications Home, www.3gpp.org/specifications/specifications.

Flynn, Kevin. “A Global Partnership.” Release 16, www.3gpp.org/release-16.

Liu, W. Xiao, and A. C. K. Soong, “Dense networks of small cells,” in Design and Deployment of Small Cell Networks, A. Anpalagan, M. Bennis, and R. Vannithamby, Eds. Cambridge University Press, 2016.

Yang, Chungang, et al. “Advanced Spectrum Sharing in 5G Cognitive Heterogeneous Networks.” IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 23, no. 2, 2016, pp. 94–101., doi:10.1109/mwc.2016.7462490.

“Regulations.” Dynamic Spectrum Alliance, 1 Sept. 2020, dynamicspectrumalliance.org/regulations/.

Saha, Rony Kumer. “Realization of Licensed/Unlicensed Spectrum Sharing Using EICIC in Indoor Small Cells for High Spectral and Energy Efficiencies of 5G Networks.” Energies, vol. 12, no. 14, 2019, p. 2828., doi:10.3390/en12142828.

Tehrani, R.H.; Vahid, S.; Triantafyllopoulou, D.; Lee, H.; Moessner, K. Licensed spectrum sharing schemes for mobile operators: A survey and outlook. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 2016, 18, 2591–2623.

D. Guiducci et al., "Sharing under licensed shared access in a live LTE network in the 2.3–2.4 GHz band end-to-end architecture and compliance results," 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN), Piscataway, NJ, 2017, pp. 1-10.

Holland et al., "5G Needs Database-Driven Spectrum Sharing!," 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN), Seoul, Korea (South), 2018, pp. 1-10.

C. Suarez-Rodriguez, B. A. Jayawickrama, F. Bader, E. Dutkiewicz and M. Heimlich, "REM-based handover algorithm for nextgeneration multi-tier cellular networks," 2018 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), Barcelona, 2018, pp. 1-6.

Y. Zhao, Z. Hong, Y. Luo, G. Wang and L. Pu, "Prediction-Based Spectrum Management in Cognitive Radio Networks," in IEEE Systems Journal, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 3303-3314, Dec. 2018.

T. Fujii, "Smart Spectrum Management for V2X," 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN), Seoul, Korea (South), 2018, pp. 1-8.

Zhang, Jianzhao, et al. “From Dynamic Spectrum Management to Smart Spectrum Management.” 2019 IEEE 5th International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC), 2019, doi:10.1109/iccc47050.2019.9064314.

Yucek, Tevfik, and Huseyin Arslan. “A Survey of Spectrum Sensing Algorithms for Cognitive Radio Applications.” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 11, no. 1, 2009, pp. 116–130., doi:10.1109/surv.2009.090109.

Zhao, Qing, and B.m. Sadler. “A Survey of Dynamic Spectrum Access.” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 24, no. 3, 2007, pp. 79–89., doi:10.1109/msp.2007.361604.

Liang, Ying Chang. Dynamic Spectrum Management. Springer Singapore, 2020.